Monday, April 22, 2024

Phawngpui National Park

Phawngpui (Blue Mountain) National Park UPSC

Phawngpui National Park is a protected area located in the state of Mizoram in northeastern India. It is also known as the Blue Mountain National Park or Phawngpui Blue Mountain National Park. 

The park is named after Phawngpui, the highest peak in Mizoram, which stands at an elevation of about 2,157 meters (7,077 feet).

One of the major attractions within Phawngpui National Park is the orchid sanctuary, which boasts a remarkable collection of orchid species. 

Table of Contents

  • Phawngpui National Park Location
  • Phawngpui National Park History
  • Phawngpui National Park Area
  • Phawngpui National Park Hills
    • Phawngpui Hills
  • Phawngpui National Park River
    • Kolodyne River
  • Phawngpui National Park Flora
    • Sub-tropical Broadleaf Forests
    • Tropical Evergreen Forests
    • Bamboo
    • Grasslands
    • Orchids
  • Phawngpui National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Phawngpui National Park UPSC Questions

Phawngpui National Park Location

Phawngpui National Park is located in the state of Mizoram in northeastern India. It is situated in the district of Lawngtlai, near the border with Myanmar (Burma). 

The park is nestled in the southern part of Mizoram, approximately 300 kilometers (186 miles) southeast of Aizawl, the capital city of Mizoram. The nearest town to the park is Sangau, which is about 229 kilometers (142 miles) away. 

Phawngpui National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport is Aizawl Airport which is about 300 km from the Phawngpui Blue Mountain National Park.

Phawngpui National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station is Silchar Railway Station which is about 185 km away from the Phawngpui National Park.

Phawngpui National Park History

Phawngpui National Park has a rich history that is intertwined with the cultural and natural heritage of Mizoram. Here are some key points about the park's history:

1. Traditional Significance: Phawngpui, the mountain after which the park is named, holds great cultural and religious significance for the local Mizo people. It is considered a sacred peak and is believed to be the abode of the guardian spirit of Mizoram. The mountain and its surrounding areas have been revered and protected by the Mizo community for generations.

2. Declaration as a National Park: In 1992, Phawngpui was declared a national park to protect its diverse ecosystem and unique wildlife. This designation aimed to safeguard the area's natural resources and conserve the habitat for numerous plant and animal species.

Phawngpui National Park Area

Phawngpui National Park covers an area of approximately 50 square kilometers (19 square miles). It encompasses the Phawngpui peak, also known as the Blue Mountain, which is the highest peak in Mizoram, standing at an elevation of about 2,157 meters (7,077 feet).

The park's relatively small size is due to its focus on conserving the unique biodiversity and natural resources found in the area. Despite its compact area, Phawngpui National Park is home to a wide range of flora and fauna, including various species of trees, orchids, and rare animals.

Phawngpui National Park Hills

Phawngpui National Park is located in the Phawngpui Hills, also known as the Blue Mountain Hills. Phawngpui Hills situated in Mizo Hills (Lushai Hills). 

Mizo Hills (Lushai Hills) are part of the larger Patkai range, which stretches across parts of northeastern India and Myanmar. 

The Phawngpui Hills are characterized by their rugged terrain, dense forests, and picturesque landscapes. The hills are home to several peaks, with Phawngpui being the highest and most prominent among them. The peak stands at an elevation of about 2,157 meters (7,077 feet) and offers breathtaking views of the surrounding hills and valleys.

The hills in and around Phawngpui National Park are covered with diverse vegetation, including bamboo forests, oak trees, rhododendrons, and magnolias. These lush forests provide habitat to numerous plant and animal species, contributing to the rich biodiversity of the region.

The Phawngpui Hills are not only a natural treasure but also hold cultural significance for the local Mizo community. The hills are considered sacred and are deeply revered by the people of Mizoram.

Phawngpui National Park River

Kolodyne River flows along the eastern side of Phawngpui National Park and forms the international border between Mizoram (India) and Myanmar. The river plays a significant role in defining the boundary and contributes to the natural beauty of the region.

The Kolodyne River originates in the Lushai Hills of Mizoram and flows in a southeastern direction, passing along the eastern boundary of Phawngpui National Park. It eventually enters Myanmar, where it continues its journey as the Kaladan River.

Phawngpui National Park Flora

Phawngpui National Park is known for its rich and diverse flora, showcasing a variety of plant species that thrive in the region's unique ecosystem. The park's vegetation is primarily characterized by its dense forests, which include the following types of flora:

(1) Sub-tropical Broadleaf Forests:

The sub-tropical broadleaf forests in the park are characterized by a mix of deciduous and evergreen trees. They showcase a diverse range of tree species, including oak, chestnut, magnolia, and other broadleaf trees. These forests provide habitat for a variety of wildlife and support a complex ecosystem.

(2) Tropical Evergreen Forests:

The tropical evergreen forests in the park are dense and lush, characterized by a canopy of evergreen trees that provide shade and support an understory of diverse plant life. These forests are typically found in areas with higher rainfall and humidity, contributing to the park's overall ecological diversity.

(3) Bamboo:

Phawngpui National Park is abundant in various species of bamboo, which play a vital role in the ecosystem. Bamboo provides habitat and food for many animal species and serves as a source of livelihood for local communities.

(4) Grasslands:

In addition to the forests, Phawngpui National Park also features cliffs and patches of natural grasslands on the tableland. These grasslands provide a distinct habitat and add to the unique landscape of the park.

(5) Orchids: 

Phawngpui National Park is famous for its orchid sanctuary, showcasing a stunning collection of orchid species. The park is home to numerous orchid varieties, adding color and beauty to the forested landscape.

Phawngpui National Park Fauna (Phawngpui National Park Animals)

Phawngpui National Park is home to a diverse range of fauna, with various species of animals inhabiting its forests and surrounding areas. Some of the notable wildlife species found in the park include:


  • Tiger
  • Leopard 
  • Clouded Leopard 
  • Himalayan Black Bear 
  • Binturong 
  • Serow
  • Ghoral 
  • Sambar 
  • Hoolock Gibbon 
  • Common Langur
  • Stump-tailed Macaque 
  • Slow Loris


  • Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant 
  • Blyth’s Tragopan 
  • Firetailed Sunbird 
  • Grey Sibia 
  • Wreathed Hornbill 
  • Kaleej Pheasant 
  • White Cheeked Partriged


  • Monitor Lizards
  • King Cobra
  • Common Krait
  • Rat Snake
  • Skinks
  • Geckos
  • Tortoises and Turtles

Phawngpui National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Phawngpui National Park?/Phawngpui National Park in which state?

A. Phawngpui National Park is located in the Lawngtlai district of Mizoram India.

Q. What is the Phawngpui National Park known for?

A. Phawngpui National Park is known for several remarkable features and attractions. Here are some of the notable aspects for which the park is renowned:

  • Phawngpui Peak 
  • Rich Biodiversity
  • Orchid Sanctuary
  • Scenic Landscapes

Q. What is Phawngpui National Park also known as?

A. Phawngpui National Park is also known as Blue Mountain National Park.

Q. In which hill is Phawngpui National Park?

A. Phawngpui National Park is in Phawngpui hills.

Q. Why is Phawngpui called Blue Mountain?

A. Phawngpui is often referred to as the Blue Mountain due to a fascinating phenomenon observed on its slopes. During certain times of the year, especially in the autumn and winter months, the mountain appears to have a distinct blue hue. This optical effect is caused by a combination of atmospheric conditions, including the scattering of sunlight by the particles and molecules in the air.

The bluish appearance of Phawngpui is particularly noticeable when viewed from a distance, and it adds to the mountain's allure and mystique. The local Mizo people, who hold the mountain in high regard, have given it the name "Phawngpui," which translates to "Mountain of the Gods" or "Abode of the Gods" in their language.

The unique bluish tint of Phawngpui's slopes has captured the imagination of visitors and locals alike, further enhancing its reputation as the Blue Mountain. It has become an iconic feature of the mountain and has contributed to its recognition and popularity among nature enthusiasts and photographers.

Phawngpui National Park

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