Tuesday, July 18, 2023

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

The Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. It is a part of Terai Arc Landscape. The sanctuary was established in 2012 with the aim of conserving the diverse flora and fauna of the region.

The Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary is known for its rich biodiversity and serves as an important habitat for several endangered species. The sanctuary is characterized by dense forests, grasslands, and numerous streams and rivers that flow through the area. The vegetation in the sanctuary includes a mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate forests, supporting a wide range of plant species.

The wildlife in Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary is diverse and includes animals such as tigers, leopards, elephants, deer species like sambar and barking deer, sloth bears, wild boars, and various species of birds. It is also home to several reptiles, amphibians, and smaller mammals.

Table of Contents

  • Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary Location

The Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Nainital district of the Indian state of Uttarakhand. It is situated in the foothills of the Himalayas.

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airpot is at Pantnagar about 48 km away. From Pantnagar Airport, you can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach the sanctuary.

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

Kathgodam is the nearest major railway station to the Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary, located at a distance of approximately 90 kilometers (about 56 miles) to the southeast. From Kathgodam, you can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach the sanctuary.

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary History

The history of Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary is deeply intertwined with the region's conservation efforts and the recognition of its ecological significance. Here are some key milestones in the sanctuary's history:

Formation and Declaration: Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary was officially established in 2012 and opened its gates to visitors in 2015. The government of Uttarakhand recognized the need to protect the unique biodiversity and natural habitat of the area, leading to its declaration as a wildlife sanctuary.

Previous Land Use: Before its establishment as a wildlife sanctuary, the Nandhaur region was primarily used for agricultural purposes and had been subject to deforestation and habitat degradation. The conversion of the area into a protected sanctuary aimed to conserve and restore the natural ecosystem.

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary Area

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 269 square kilometers (104 square miles). Since 2002, Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary area has been a part of the Shivalik Elephant Reserve. 

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary River

Perennial Nandhaur river flows through Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

The Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary boasts a diverse range of flora due to its location in the foothills of the Himalayas and the Terai region. The sanctuary's vegetation includes a mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate forests, providing a varied habitat for numerous plant species. Here are some of the key flora found in the Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary:

Sal (Shorea robusta): Sal is a dominant tree species in the sanctuary and forms extensive forests. These trees are known for their straight trunks and valuable timber.

Khair (Acacia catechu): Khair, also known as catechu or black catechu, is a medium-sized deciduous tree found in the sanctuary. It is used for various purposes, including its medicinal properties.

Sheesham (Dalbergia sissoo): Sheesham, or Indian rosewood, is a hardwood tree that is commonly found in the sanctuary. It is highly valued for its durable wood and is often used in furniture making.

Bamboo: Several species of bamboo grow in the Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary. Bamboo thickets provide essential cover and food for many animals in the area.

Teak (Tectona grandis): Teak is another significant tree species found in the sanctuary. It is known for its high-quality timber and is often planted in reforestation efforts.

Semal (Bombax ceiba): Semal, or silk cotton tree, is a large deciduous tree with striking red flowers. It adds to the sanctuary's beauty during its flowering season.

Mahua (Madhuca longifolia): Mahua is a flowering tree that produces edible fruits. It is an important tree for both wildlife and local communities.

Various Medicinal Plants: The sanctuary is also home to a wide variety of medicinal plants, which have been traditionally used by local communities for various health remedies.

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

The Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a rich and diverse array of wildlife, including various mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The sanctuary's location in the Terai region and its proximity to the foothills of the Himalayas contribute to the abundance of species found within its boundaries. Some of the notable fauna in the Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary include:


  • Bengal Tiger
  • Indian Leopard
  • Asian Elephant
  • Barking Deer
  • Wild Boar
  • Sloth Bear
  • Himalayan Black Bear
  • Indian Pangolin
  • Indian Civet
  • Jungle Cat
  • Indian Hare
  • Indian Gray Mongoose
  • Rhesus Macaque
  • Indian Langur


  • Indian Peafowl
  • Red Junglefowl
  • Great Pied Hornbill
  • Crested Serpent Eagle
  • Oriental Pied Hornbill
  • Himalayan Bulbul
  • Hill Partridge
  • Green-billed Malkoha
  • Indian Roller
  • Indian Pitta


  • Indian Python
  • Common Indian Monitor
  • Indian Cobra
  • Common Krait
  • Russell's Viper

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. In which district is Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary situated?

A. Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Nainital district of Uttarakhand, India. 

Q. What is Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. The Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary is famous for several reasons:

(i) Biodiversity: The sanctuary is renowned for its rich and diverse biodiversity. It provides a habitat for a wide range of flora and fauna, including endangered and threatened species like the Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, and Indian leopard. The presence of such iconic and rare wildlife makes Nandhaur a significant conservation area.

(ii) Tiger Conservation: Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary is known for its efforts in tiger conservation. The presence of Bengal tigers in the sanctuary highlights its importance as a protected area for these majestic big cats.

(iii) Terai Region: The sanctuary is located in the Terai region, which is a transition zone between the Himalayan foothills and the plains. The Terai landscape is characterized by diverse ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and wetlands, making it an ecologically valuable area.

(iv) Scenic Beauty: Nandhaur offers stunning natural beauty with its lush forests, rolling hills, and meandering rivers. Visitors can enjoy the picturesque landscapes and immerse themselves in the tranquility of the sanctuary.

(v) Birdwatching: The sanctuary is a haven for birdwatchers due to the presence of numerous bird species. Bird enthusiasts can spot a variety of avian residents, including colorful peafowls, hornbills, and many others.

(vi) Connectivity Corridor: Nandhaur serves as an important wildlife corridor connecting the plains with the Himalayan forests. This connectivity is crucial for maintaining genetic diversity and facilitating the movement of wildlife between different regions.

Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary

No comments:

Post a Comment