Saturday, August 26, 2023

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

The Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Western Ghats of India, specifically in the state of Karnataka. The sanctuary is known for its rich biodiversity and natural beauty.

The Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary is named after Goddess Mookambika, the presiding deity of the famous Mookambika Temple which is located at the heart of the Sanctuary. Many visitors combine their religious activities with exploring the natural beauty of the sanctuary.

The sanctuary is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna due to its location in the Western Ghats, a hotspot of biodiversity. It houses numerous plant species, including various types of trees, shrubs, and medicinal plants. The sanctuary's forests are also inhabited by several species of animals, birds, and reptiles.

The Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary plays a vital role in the conservation of the region's biodiversity. Efforts are made to protect and preserve the various plant and animal species that call the sanctuary home.

Table of Contents

  • Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Hills
  • Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Lake
  • Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Location

The Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary is located in in Kollur in the Udupi district of Coastal Karnataka, India. It is situated in the Western Ghats, a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of the Indian subcontinent. 

The sanctuary is relatively close to the Arabian Sea and is known for its lush forests, diverse flora and fauna, and natural beauty. 

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to the Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary is the Mangalore International Airport (also known as Mangaluru Airport), which is located in the city of Mangalore in Karnataka, India. The airport is approximately 135 to 140 kilometers away from the sanctuary, and it serves as the main gateway for air travel to the region.

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to the Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary is the Kundapura Railway Station. It is situated in Kundapura town, which is about 30 to 35 kilometers away from the sanctuary. Another railway station that is relatively close is the Udupi Railway Station, which is about 55 to 60 kilometers away. Both of these stations are well-connected to various major cities and towns in the region.

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary History

The history of the Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary is intertwined with the cultural, ecological, and conservation aspects of the region. The sanctuary's establishment and development have been influenced by various factors over time:

Cultural and Religious Significance: The Mookambika Temple, dedicated to Goddess Mookambika, has been a place of worship and pilgrimage for centuries. The temple's presence in the area has likely contributed to the preservation of the surrounding natural environment, as sacred groves and forests are often protected due to their religious significance.

Establishment: In 1974, with increasing awareness about the importance of preserving biodiversity and natural habitats, the Karnataka state government recognized the ecological significance of the area and designated it as a wildlife sanctuary to ensure the protection of its flora and fauna.

Biodiversity Hotspot: The Western Ghats, where the sanctuary is located, is a recognized biodiversity hotspot. This region is home to numerous endemic and endangered species, making it a crucial area for conservation efforts. The establishment of the sanctuary aimed to provide a protected space for these species to thrive.

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Area

This area was initially notified as 274 square kilometers but was subsequently expanded to 370.37 square kilometers

The sanctuary consists of an area of 274 km2 (106 sq mi) was notified in the year 1974.This was subsequently expanded to 370.37 km2 (143.00 sq mi) in 1978 and 2011.

This relatively large area allows for the preservation of diverse habitats, flora, and fauna that are characteristic of the Western Ghats region. The sanctuary's size contributes to its role in conserving the biodiversity of the area and providing a habitat for various plant and animal species.

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Hills

The Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in the Western Ghats, a mountain range that runs along the western coast of India. As such, the sanctuary is characterized by hilly terrain, lush forests, and picturesque landscapes. The Western Ghats are known for their biodiversity and the presence of numerous hills and peaks.

The presence of the famed Kodachadri hills within the Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary adds to the significance and diversity of the sanctuary.

Kodachadri Hills:

Kodachadri is a well-known mountain peak and hill range located within the Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary. It is a popular destination for trekkers, nature enthusiasts, and pilgrims. The Kodachadri hill range is characterized by its lush forests, diverse flora and fauna, and stunning panoramic views from the peak. The area around Kodachadri is also considered sacred and has historical and cultural significance.

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary River

The perennial Chakra river and Sowparnika river flow through the Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary. These rivers are vital water sources that contribute to the ecosystem's health and support a variety of plant and animal life within the sanctuary. 

Their presence enhances the sanctuary's biodiversity and adds to the scenic beauty of the area. The flow of these rivers through the sanctuary likely plays a crucial role in shaping the landscape and creating diverse habitats for the flora and fauna that inhabit the region.

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Lake

The Chakra Reservoir, also known as the Chakra Dam, is a popular water reservoir located near the Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary in Karnataka, India. It's important to clarify that the Chakra Reservoir is not directly within the sanctuary boundaries but is located in proximity to it.

The Chakra Reservoir is formed by the Chakra River, which flows through the region. The reservoir serves as a water source for irrigation, drinking water, and other purposes in the surrounding areas. It's a scenic spot and is often visited by tourists and locals for its natural beauty and recreational opportunities.

While the reservoir itself might not be part of the Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary, its presence in the vicinity contributes to the overall charm of the region and can potentially be part of the experiences for those visiting the sanctuary area.

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

The Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary is known for its diverse flora, which is characteristic of the Western Ghats region. The sanctuary's elevation, varying habitats, and tropical climate contribute to the rich variety of plant species found within its boundaries. 

Here are some examples of the types of flora that you might encounter in the sanctuary:

(1) Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forests:

These forests are a mix between evergreen and moist deciduous forests. They retain some green foliage even during the dry season. You might find a variety of tree species in these forests, including both evergreen and deciduous trees. These forests typically occur in areas with intermediate rainfall.

(2) Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests:

These are dense and lush forests where trees retain their green foliage throughout the year. They are usually found in regions with high rainfall and humidity. These forests are known for their high biodiversity and are home to many endemic species. They have a multi-layered structure with various tree species at different heights.

(3) Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests:

These forests experience distinct wet and dry seasons. During the dry season, many of the trees shed their leaves to conserve water. Tree species in these forests might include both deciduous and evergreen varieties. They are common in areas with moderate rainfall.

(4) Plant Species:

  • Dipterocarpus indicus (Shorea robusta): Sal tree
  • Calophyllum tomentosum: Marutham
  • Machilus macrantha: Maravuri
  • Caryota urens (Fishtail Palm): Marudhu, Eetham, Maruthu
  • Aporosa lindleyana: Paniyandu, Panikondai
  • Lagerstroemia lanceolata (Lance-leaved Crape Myrtle): Kala, Kudirai, Thavvaara
  • Hopea parviflora: Pungu, Cherai

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

The Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of fauna, thanks to its varied habitats and the protection it offers to wildlife. Here are some examples of the types of animals you can find within the sanctuary:


  • Lion-tailed Macaque
  • Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Wild Dog
  • Golden Jackal
  • Bonnet Macaque
  • South-western or Blackfooted Grey Langur
  • Wild Boar
  • Spotted Deer
  • Barking Deer
  • Mouse Deer
  • Gaur
  • Eurasian Otter
  • Porcupine


  • Egyptian Vulture
  • Malabar Pied Hornbill
  • Racket-tailed Drongo
  • Indian Roller
  • Great Indian Hornbill
  • Malabar Trogon
  • White-bellied Treepie


  • Indian Rock Python
  • King Cobra
  • Common Monitor Lizard
  • Forest Lizard

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. What is Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. The Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary is famous for its rich biodiversity, stunning landscapes, and the presence of various plant and animal species that are endemic to the Western Ghats region. Here are some of the key reasons why the sanctuary is renowned:

(i) Biodiversity Hotspot: The Western Ghats is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot, and the Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary is a part of this ecologically significant region. The sanctuary's diverse range of flora and fauna contributes to its reputation as a hub of biodiversity.

(ii) Endemic Species: The sanctuary is home to numerous plant and animal species that are found only in this region, making it a critical area for conservation efforts and research on these unique species.

(iii) Landscape Diversity: The sanctuary encompasses various forest types, including tropical semi-evergreen, wet evergreen, and moist deciduous forests. This diverse range of habitats contributes to the presence of a wide variety of plant and animal life.

(iv) Kodachadri Hills: The famed Kodachadri hills are situated near the sanctuary and are a significant attraction. Trekkers and pilgrims visit these hills for their natural beauty and cultural importance.

(v) Religious Significance: The proximity of the Kollur Mookambika Temple, a revered pilgrimage site, adds to the sanctuary's appeal. Visitors often combine spiritual activities with exploration of the sanctuary's natural wonders.

(vi) Conservation Efforts: The sanctuary's role in conserving the biodiversity of the Western Ghats, protecting endemic species, and providing a safe habitat for wildlife contributes to its reputation as a conservation area of importance.

Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary

No comments:

Post a Comment