Monday, September 11, 2023

Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary

Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary UPSC

The Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary is a protected area located in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The sanctuary is known for its diverse birdlife, including both resident and migratory bird species, and it plays a significant role in the conservation of avian biodiversity in the region.

The sanctuary is irrigated by an irrigation tank that receives water from the Mettur Dam. It also receives water from the northeast monsoon between August and December, but the tank remains dry between April and August.

The sanctuary is home to a variety of bird species. The bird population peaks between September and December, with up to 10,000 birds congregating during peak season in November and December.

The sanctuary is open to tourists throughout the year. The best time to visit is during the months of November and December. There are two public observation towers for birdwatching, and accommodation facilities are available in PWD Rest House and private lodges in Muthupet and Thiruthuraipoondi.

Table of Contents

  • Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary Location
  • Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary History
  • Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary Area
  • Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary River/Lake
  • Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary Flora
  • Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary Location

The Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary is located in the Thiruvarur District of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. 

Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary is Tiruchirapalli International Airport (also known as Trichy Airport). It is located approximately 124 kilometers away from Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary.

Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary is Thiruthuraipoondi Railway Station, which is situated about 18 kilometers from the sanctuary.

Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary History

Establishment as a Protected Area: The Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary was declared as a protected area in December 1999. This designation marked the sanctuary's official recognition and protection status.

Conservation Significance: Since its establishment, the sanctuary has played a vital role in the conservation of avian biodiversity in the region. It has provided a safe and protected habitat for a variety of bird species, including both resident and migratory birds.

Ramsar Site Designation: The Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary received Ramsar site designation on April 8, 2022. This recognition signifies its global importance as a wetland ecosystem, particularly for the conservation of waterbirds and their habitats.

Role in Water Resource Management: In addition to its importance for wildlife conservation, the sanctuary serves surrounding communities by providing fresh water for human consumption, livestock, and agriculture. It helps store floodwaters during the monsoon and maintains surface water flow during drier periods, contributing to groundwater replenishment and supporting smaller wetlands and agricultural land.

Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary Area

The Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 0.45 square kilometers (or 45 hectares). This sanctuary is relatively small in size but plays a significant role in providing a habitat for various bird species, both resident and migratory, in the Thiruvarur District of Tamil Nadu, India. 

Despite its modest size, it serves as a crucial sanctuary for avian biodiversity in the region and offers opportunities for birdwatching and wildlife conservation.

Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary River/Lake

The Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary primarily relies on an irrigation tank as its main water source. This irrigation tank receives water from the Mettur Dam and is supplemented by the northeast monsoon from August to December. The tank's water levels can fluctuate seasonally, as it typically dries up between the months of April and August.

The presence of this irrigation tank and its water supply is crucial for providing suitable habitat conditions for the various bird species that inhabit or visit the sanctuary. 

It creates a wetland environment that attracts a diverse array of birds, making it an important location for bird conservation and birdwatching in the Thiruvarur District of Tamil Nadu, India.

Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary Flora

The Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary features diverse flora that contribute to its ecosystem and make it an attractive habitat for various bird species. Here are some common types of flora that can be found in this sanctuary:

(1) Aquatic Grasses:

Aquatic grasses, such as various species of sedges and rushes, often thrive in the wetland areas of the sanctuary. These grasses provide nesting and foraging sites for birds and serve as an important part of the wetland ecosystem.

(2) Reed Brakes:

Reed beds or reed brakes are common in wetland areas and are often dominated by reed species like common reed (Phragmites australis). These tall grasses provide cover and nesting sites for various bird species.

(3) Water Lilies:

Water lilies are aquatic plants with broad, floating leaves and colorful flowers. They are often found in the sanctuary's water bodies and provide shelter and food sources for birds and other aquatic organisms.

(4) Floating Vegetation:

Various floating vegetation, such as duckweed and water hyacinth, can be found in the water bodies of the sanctuary. These plants not only provide habitat and food but also help improve water quality.

(5) Grasslands:

Surrounding areas or open spaces within the sanctuary may contain grasslands. These areas can attract ground-feeding and terrestrial bird species.

Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary Fauna (Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary Animals)

The Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of bird species, making it a significant site for avian biodiversity. Here's a list of some of the notable bird species that can be found in the sanctuary:


  • Lion-tailed Macaque
  • Langur
  • Giant Squirrel


  • Little Cormorants
  • Egrets
  • Night Heron
  • Purple Swamphen
  • Common Coot
  • Pheasant-tailed Jacana
  • Grey Heron
  • Common Kingfisher
  • Eurasian Spoonbill
  • Woolly-necked Storks
  • Lesser Whistling Teal
  • Spot-billed Pelican
  • Oriental Darter
  • Black-headed Ibis 
  • Eurasian Wigeon 
  • Northern Pintail 
  • Garganey 


  • Python
  • Lizards

Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary which district?

A. The Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary is located in the Thiruvarur District of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary

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