Wednesday, May 31, 2023

Dehing Patkai National Park

Dehing Patkai National Park UPSC

Dehing Patkai National Park, also known as the Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary, is a protected area located in the state of Assam, India. The Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary is also known as the Jeypore Rainforest.


Dehing is the name of the river that flows through this park and Patkai is the hill at the foot of which the national park lies. The park is known for its rich biodiversity and lush greenery. It is part of the larger Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve, which encompasses both forested areas and grasslands. 


The Dehing Patkai National Park is characterized by its evergreen rainforests, which are among the last remaining lowland rainforests in India. 


Table of Contents

  • Dehing Patkai National Park Location
  • Dehing Patkai National Park History
  • Dehing Patkai National Park Area
  • Dehing Patkai National Park Hills
    • Patkai Bum Range
  • Dehing Patkai National Park River
    • Dehing River
  • Dehing Patkai National Park Tribe
  • Dehing Patkai National Park Flora
  • Dehing Patkai National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Dehing Patkai National Park
  • Dehing Patkai National Park UPSC Questions


Dehing Patkai National Park Location

Dehing Patkai National Park is located in the Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of Assam, India. The national park is situated in the eastern part of Assam, near the border with Arunachal Pradesh. 


It is located within the larger Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve, which spreads across the coal- and oil-rich districts of Upper Assam (Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts). The oldest refinery of Asia in Digboi and ‘open cast’ coal mining at Lido are located near the sanctuary.


Dehing Patkai National Park Nearest Airport:

Dibrugarh Airport is the nearest airport, at a distance of approx. 103km from Dehing Patkai National Park.


Dehing Patkai National Park Nearest Railway Station:

 Nearest railway station is Naharkatia which is around 8 km from the park.




Dehing Patkai National Park History (Dehing Patkai National Park Established)

The history of Dehing Patkai National Park, also known as Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary, is closely linked to the region's natural and cultural heritage. Here is a brief overview:


Early Human Habitation: The region surrounding Dehing Patkai National Park has a long history of human habitation. Indigenous communities, such as the Tai Phake, Khamti, and Singpho tribes, have been residing in this area for generations, maintaining a close relationship with the surrounding forests and wildlife.


Protected Forest Area: The area that encompasses Dehing Patkai National Park was initially designated as a Reserved Forest in 1924 under the British Raj. It was aimed at conserving the region's natural resources, including its diverse flora and fauna.


Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary: In 2004, the area was officially declared the Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary, recognizing its ecological significance and the need for conservation.


Upgrading to National Park: On 13 December 2020 Government of Assam upgraded it into a national park. On 9 June 2021 Forest Department of Assam officially notified it as a national park. 




Dehing Patkai National Park Area

Dehing Patkai National Park covers an area of approximately 231.65 km2 (89.44 sq mi). This area is situated in the eastern part of Assam, primarily in the districts of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia. 


The park area is characterized by its evergreen rainforests, which are among the last remaining lowland rainforests in India. 


Dehing Patkai National Park is a part of the 937 sq. km Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve that includes the British-era coal mines and oil refinery town Digboi.




Dehing Patkai National Park Hills

Patkai Bum Range:

Dehing Patkai National Park is situated in the Patkai hills region, which is a mountain range that extends across parts of Assam, Nagaland, and Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India  and Upper Burma region of Myanmar.


The Patkai hills, also referred to as the Purvanchal range, are part of the larger Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot and are known for their rich biodiversity and scenic landscapes. While the park itself is predominantly comprised of lowland rainforests, the surrounding region features rolling hills and valleys that contribute to the overall topography of the area.


These hills provide a beautiful backdrop to the national park, and their presence adds to the overall natural beauty and ecological diversity of the region. The combination of rainforests, hills, and rivers creates a unique and picturesque environment in and around Dehing Patkai National Park.




Dehing Patkai National Park River

Dehing River:

Dehing river flows through Dehing Patkai National Park. It flows through the southern part of the Dehing Patkai National Park. It is an important waterway that nourishes the surrounding forests and supports the diverse flora and fauna in the area.


  • The river originates in the Eastern Himalayas (the Patkai Hills) in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The Dehing River is a tributary of the Brahmaputra River.
  • It is about 380 kilometres long.
  • It flows through Tinsukia and Dibrugarh Districts in Assam to its confluence with the Brahmaputra at Dihingmukh. 
  • Its watershed covers about 6,000 square kilometres.
  • The Dehing has created number of oxbow lakes in the area.




Dehing Patkai National Park Tribe

Dehing Patkai National Park is home to several indigenous communities or tribes who have been living in the region for generations. 


There are more than a dozen different ethnic groups living in the Dehing Patkai Forest region including the indigenous Assamese communities, particularly Tai Phake, Khamyang, Khampti, Singpho, Nocte, Chutia, Ahom, Kaibarta, Moran , Motok, Burmese, and Nepali people. Tea-tribes were brought by the British to work in the tea plantations.


(1) Tai Phake:

The Tai Phake community is one of the major indigenous tribes residing in the vicinity of Dehing Patkai National Park. They have a distinct culture and language and have traditionally practiced agriculture and weaving. The Tai Phake people have a deep connection with the natural environment and are known for their traditional knowledge of the forest.


(2) Khamti: 

The Khamti tribe is another indigenous community found in the area surrounding the national park. They originally migrated from Myanmar (formerly Burma) and settled in parts of Assam. The Khamti people have their unique language, customs, and cultural practices. They are known for their expertise in silk weaving and traditional craftsmanship.


(3) Singpho: 

The Singpho tribe is also present in the region near Dehing Patkai National Park. The Singpho people have a distinct cultural identity and have traditionally been involved in agriculture, tea cultivation, and handicrafts. They have their own language and follow their indigenous religious practices.



These indigenous communities have a deep understanding of the local ecosystem and have coexisted with nature for generations. They contribute to the cultural heritage and diversity of the region. Their traditional knowledge and practices play an essential role in the conservation and sustainable management of Dehing Patkai National Park.




Dehing Patkai National Park Flora

Dehing Patkai National Park, with its rich and diverse ecosystems, is home to a wide variety of flora. The park's lush evergreen rainforests and the surrounding areas harbor an abundance of plant species. 


Dehing Patkai National Park harbours the largest stretch of lowland rainforests in India. It is believed to be the last remaining contiguous patch of lowland rainforest area in Assam.


Some of the notable flora found in Dehing Patkai National Park include:


(1) Dipterocarp Trees: 

The park is known for its dipterocarp trees, which are dominant in the lowland rainforest ecosystem. These tall and majestic trees are characteristic of the region and play a vital role in providing habitat for various wildlife species.


(2) Canopy Trees:

The park's rainforests feature a dense canopy formed by a variety of tree species. Trees like Hollong (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus), Sam (Artocarpus chaplasha), Nahor (Mesua ferrea), and Simul (Bombax ceiba) are commonly found in the park, contributing to the overall canopy cover.


(3) Orchids: 

Dehing Patkai National Park is renowned for its orchid diversity. Numerous species of orchids, including terrestrial and epiphytic varieties, can be found in the park. Orchids such as the Lady's Slipper Orchid (Paphiopedilum sp.) and the Vanda spathulata are among the many orchid species present.


(4) Ferns and Mosses: 

The park's moist and shaded environment provides a favorable habitat for various ferns and mosses. Ferns like Adiantum spp., Dryopteris spp., and Pteris spp., as well as mosses, liverworts, and lichens, contribute to the understory vegetation.


(5) Medicinal Plants: 

The forests of Dehing Patkai National Park also host several medicinal plants. Species like Rauvolfia serpentina (Indian Snakeroot), Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag), and Curcuma aromatica (Wild Turmeric) are known for their medicinal properties and are of cultural and economic importance.




Dehing Patkai National Park Fauna (Dehing Patkai National Park Animals)

Dehing Patkai National Park, with its diverse habitats and rich rainforest ecosystem, supports a wide range of fauna. The park is home to numerous species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. 


Here are some notable fauna found in Dehing Patkai National Park:


Mammals:

  • Bengal Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Clouded Leopard
  • Asian Elephant
  • Hoolock Gibbon
  • Chinese Pangolin
  • Dhole or Asian Wild Dog
  • Himalayan Black Bear
  • Malayan Sun Bear
  • Slow Loris
  • Assamese Macaque
  • Stump-tailed Macaque
  • Pig-tailed Macaque
  • Rhesus Monkey
  • Capped Langur
  • Crab-eating Mongoose
  • Small-toothed Palm Civet
  • Binturong
  • Jungle Cat
  • Leopard Cat
  • Asian Golden Cat
  • Marbled Cat
  • Gaur
  • Red Giant Flying Squirrel
  • Crestless Himalayan Porcupine
  • Asiatic Bush-tailed Porcupine
  • Chinese Pangolin
  • Flying Fox
  • Wild Pig
  • Sambar
  • Barking Deer
  • Malayan Giant Squirrels


Note- It is the only sanctuary in India which is home to seven different species of wild cats - tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, leopard cat, golden cat, jungle cat and marbled cat.


Birds:

  • White Winged Wood Duck
  • White-cheeked Hill Partridge
  • Kaleej Pheasant
  • Grey Peacock Pheasant
  • Oriental Darter
  • Lesser Adjutant
  • Pied Falconet
  • Slender-billed Vulture
  • White-backed Vulture
  • Greater Spotted Eagle
  • Besra
  • Black Baza
  • Osprey
  • Pale-capped Pigeon
  • Green Imperial Pigeon
  • Mountain Imperial Pigeon
  • Red-breasted Parakeet
  • Oriental Bay Owl
  • Tawny Fish Owl
  • Great Pied Hornbill
  • Brown Hornbill
  • Wreathed Hornbill
  • Yellow-vented Warbler
  • Hill Myna
  • Scaly Thrush


Reptiles:

  • King Cobra
  • Monocled Cobra
  • Reticulated Python
  • Green Pit Viper
  • Indian Rock Python




Top Things to do in Dehing Patkai National Park

Dehing Patkai National Park offers a range of activities and experiences for nature enthusiasts. 


Here are some of the top things to do in Dehing Patkai National Park:

  • Wildlife Safari
  • Bird Watching
  • Nature Walks and Trekking
  • Explore Indigenous Culture
  • Visit Panoramic Viewpoints
  • Nature Photography
  • Conservation and Education




Dehing Patkai National Park UPSC Questions

Q. When was Dehing Patkai declared as national park?

A. Dehing Patkai declared as national park in 2021.


Q. Dehing Patkai National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Dehing Patkai National Park is famous for White Winged Wood Duck.


Q. Where is Dehing Patkai National Park?

A. Dehing Patkai National Park is located in the Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of Assam, India.


Q. Dehing Patkai National Park in which district?

A. Dehing Patkai National Park is located in the Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of Assam.


Q. Dehing Patkai National Park is in which state?

A. Dehing Patkai National Park is located in the Assam state of India. 


Q. When did Dehing Patkai declared as national park?

A. Dehing Patkai was declared as national park in 2021.


Q. What is the Speciality of Dehing Patkai National Park?

A. The specialty of Dehing Patkai National Park lies in its unique and diverse ecosystems, particularly its pristine lowland rainforests.


Q. Which river passes through Dehing Patkai?

A. Dehing river passes through Dehing Patkai.


Q. Which National Park is known as Amazon of the East?

A. Dehing Patkai National Park is known as Amazon of the East

Dehing Patkai National Park

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