Tuesday, May 30, 2023

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park UPSC

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is a National Park as well as a Biosphere Reserve located in the northeastern state of Assam, India. It is situated in the floodplains of the Brahmaputra River and is known for its unique biodiversity and rich ecosystems. 


The Dibru-Saikhowa National Park originally created to help conserve the habitat of the rare white-winged wood duck. The park is particularly famous for its white-winged wood duck population, which is considered one of the flagship species of the park. The park is also known for its feral horses population.


Table of Contents

  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Location
  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park History
  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Area
  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park River
    • Brahmaputra River
    • Lohit River
    • Dibru River
    • Saikhowa River
  • Dibru Saikhowa National Park Lake
  • Dibru Saikhowa National Park Tribe
  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Flora
    • Grasses and Wetland Plants
    • Tropical Evergreen and Semi-Evergreen Forest Species
    • Swamp Forest
    • Aquatic Plants
  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Feral Horses
  • Top Things to do in Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park UPSC Questions


Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Location

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is located in Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of  Assam, India. The park is bounded by the Brahmaputra and Lohit rivers in the north and Dibru River in the south. 


The park is situated in the floodplains of the Brahmaputra River and is surrounded by the larger Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, which includes additional forested and wetland areas. 


Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport is Dibrugarh Airport, which is 40 kms. away from the park. 


Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station is Tinsukia railway station, which is around 60 km away from the park.




Dibru-Saikhowa National Park History (Dibru Saikhowa National Park Established)

The history of Dibru-Saikhowa National Park dates back several decades. Here is a brief overview of its history:


Formation of Dibru Reserved Forest: The area that is now known as Dibru-Saikhowa National Park was initially declared as the Dibru Reserved Forest in 1890 under British colonial rule. It served as a designated forest area to protect the diverse flora and fauna found in the region.


Formation of Saikhowa Reserved Forest: In 1929, Saikhowa Reserve Forest was declared. 


Designation as a Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1986, Dibru Reserved Forest was upgraded to the status of a wildlife sanctuary. This recognition aimed to provide enhanced protection to the area's wildlife and habitats. The Dibru-Saikhowa Wildlife Sanctuary covered an area of approximately 340 square kilometers (131 square miles).


Recognition as a Biosphere Reserve: In 1997, the Dibru-Saikhowa Wildlife Sanctuary was expanded to include the adjoining Saikhowa Reserve Forest. This expansion led to the formation of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, covering a total area of around 765 square kilometers (295 square miles) including a core area of 340 km2 (130 sq mi) and a buffer zone of 425 km2 (164 sq mi). The biosphere reserve designation highlights the area's ecological significance and the need for conservation efforts.


National Park Status: In 1999, Dibru-Saikhowa Wildlife Sanctuary was declared as a national park. 


Since its establishment as a national park, Dibru-Saikhowa has been a focus of conservation efforts, aiming to protect its unique ecosystems and diverse wildlife. The park continues to play a vital role in preserving the region's natural heritage and supporting the conservation of endangered species.




Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Area

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park cover an area of 340 km2 (130 sq mi). It is a part of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve.


The park area is characterized by its vast grasslands, wetlands, and patches of dense forests. It is situated in the floodplains of the Brahmaputra River and is known for its diverse ecosystems, including grasslands, wetlands, and patches of dense forests.


Apart from the national park, the larger Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, which includes additional forested and wetland areas, extends beyond the boundaries of the national park. The biosphere reserve further contributes to the conservation and protection of the region's biodiversity.




Dibru-Saikhowa National Park River

The Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is bounded by the Brahmaputra and Lohit rivers in the north and Dibru River in the south. The national park was named after the two major rivers that flow through it, the Dibru River and the Saikhowa River.


(1) Brahmaputra River:

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is located in the floodplains of the Brahmaputra River, one of the major rivers in the Indian subcontinent. The park is bordered by the Brahmaputra River on north side.


The Brahmaputra River is a transboundary river that originates in the Himalayas and flows through Tibet, China, India, and Bangladesh. In Assam, the river plays a crucial role in shaping the landscape and ecosystems of the region. It is known for its powerful currents, extensive riverine islands, and its significance as a lifeline for the people and wildlife in the area.


The Brahmaputra River flowing alongside Dibru-Saikhowa National Park not only adds to the scenic beauty but also contributes to the park's diverse ecosystems. The river and its tributaries create wetlands, sandbars, and river channels within the park, supporting a wide range of aquatic life and attracting numerous migratory bird species.


Visitors to Dibru-Saikhowa National Park can experience the river's beauty by taking boat rides or river cruises. These activities provide an opportunity to explore the park's landscapes, spot wildlife, and witness the unique riverine ecosystems that exist within the national park.


(2) Lohit River:

The Lohit River is one of the major tributaries of the Brahmaputra River and flows through the northeastern state of Arunachal Pradesh in India. The park is bordered by the Lohit River on north side. It is an important river in the region and contributes to the overall drainage system of the Brahmaputra basin.


The Lohit River originates in the eastern Himalayas near the Indo-China border and flows in a southerly direction through Arunachal Pradesh. It passes through diverse landscapes, including mountainous terrain, deep gorges, and dense forests. The river eventually joins the Brahmaputra River near the town of Tezu in Arunachal Pradesh.


(3) Dibru River:

Dibru River  flow through Dibru-Saikhowa National Park.


(4) Saikhowa River:

Saikhowa River flow through Dibru-Saikhowa National Park.




Dibru Saikhowa National Park Lake

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is known for its wetlands, marshes, and riverine ecosystems, but it does not have any significant natural lakes within its boundaries. The park is primarily situated in the floodplains of the Brahmaputra River in the northeastern state of Assam, India.


However, there are several smaller water bodies within the park, including temporary ponds, small lakes, and oxbow lakes. These water bodies are formed as a result of the changing course of the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries over time. They provide important habitats for aquatic species, waterfowl, and other wildlife.


Additionally, Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is home to the Maguri-Motapung Beel, which is a large wetland area located just outside the park boundaries. The Maguri-Motapung Beel is known for its rich biodiversity and serves as a crucial habitat for various bird species, including migratory birds.


While there may not be any major natural lakes within Dibru-Saikhowa National Park itself, the presence of wetlands, ponds, and smaller water bodies adds to the overall ecological diversity and significance of the park.




Dibru Saikhowa National Park Tribe

What are the major tribes in Dibru-Saikhowa?

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is located in the northeastern state of Assam, India. The region surrounding the national park is home to various indigenous tribal communities. However, there is no specific tribe that is exclusively associated with Dibru-Saikhowa National Park.


In the vicinity of the park, you may find tribal communities such as the Mishing, Deori, Sonowal Kachari, Moran, and Ahom, among others. These communities have a rich cultural heritage and traditional practices that are deeply rooted in the region.


The Mishing tribe, also known as the Miri, is one of the prominent indigenous communities in the area. They are primarily settled along the banks of the Brahmaputra River and engage in agriculture, fishing, and handloom weaving.


The Deori tribe, another significant community, is known for their religious and cultural practices. They have their own unique traditions, including the worship of the sun and moon.


The Sonowal Kachari, Moran, and Ahom tribes also have a presence in the region surrounding Dibru-Saikhowa National Park. These communities have their distinct cultural practices, languages, and traditional knowledge.


While these tribal communities may have a close connection to the natural environment and may have traditional knowledge about the park and its surroundings, they do not have exclusive ownership or jurisdiction over the national park.




Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Flora

What plants are found in Dibru-Saikhowa National Park?

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is known for its diverse and unique flora. The park's vegetation consists of a variety of habitats, including grasslands, wetlands, and patches of dense forests. 


Here are some of the notable plant species found in Dibru-Saikhowa National Park:


(1) Grasses and Wetland Plants: 

The park's grasslands and wetlands are characterized by species like Saccharum spontaneum (wild sugarcane), Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass), Phragmites karka (common reed), and Typha angustifolia (narrowleaf cattail). These plants thrive in the marshy and waterlogged areas.


(2) Tropical Evergreen and Semi-Evergreen Forest Species: 

In the forested areas of the park, you can find a mix of evergreen and semi-evergreen species such as Terminalia myriocarpa (Indian laurel), Duabanga grandiflora (Diu), Bombax ceiba (silk cotton tree), Syzygium cumini (Indian blackberry), and Lagerstroemia speciosa (pride of India).


(3) Swamp Forest: 

It is the largest swamp forest in north-eastern India. Within the park, there are regions with waterlogged and low-lying areas that exhibit swamp-like characteristics. These areas are influenced by the seasonal flooding of the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries. During the monsoon season, when the water levels rise, certain parts of the park become swampy, with saturated soil and standing water.


In these swampy areas, you can find vegetation that is adapted to the waterlogged conditions. This includes tree species such as Avicennia spp. (mangroves), Sonneratia spp. (mangroves), and other species that can tolerate or thrive in swampy environments.


(4) Aquatic Plants: 

The water bodies within the park support a diverse range of aquatic plants, such as Vallisneria spiralis (tape grass), Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla), and Ceratophyllum demersum (hornwort), which provide habitat and food for various aquatic species.




Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Fauna (Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Animals)

The Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is originally created to help conserve the habitat of the rare white-winged wood duck.


Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is home to a rich and diverse range of fauna, including several rare and endangered species. The park's varied ecosystems, which include grasslands, wetlands, and forests, support a wide array of wildlife. 


Here are some notable fauna species found in Dibru-Saikhowa National Park:


Mammals:

What are the mammals of Dibru-Saikhowa National Park?

  • Bengal Tiger
  • Asian Elephant
  • Indian Leopard
  • Clouded Leopard
  • Asiatic Water Buffalo
  • Jungle Cat
  • Bears
  • Small Indian Civet
  • Squirrels
  • Gangetic Dolphin
  • Hoolock Gibbon
  • Sloth Bear
  • Dhole
  • Malayan Giant Squirrel
  • Chinese Pangolin
  • Slow Loris
  • Pig Tailed Macaque
  • Assamese Macaque
  • Rhesus Macaque
  • Capped langur
  • Wild Boar
  • Sambar Deer
  • Hog Deer
  • Barking Deer
  • Feral Horse


Note- The park is one of the few places in the world which is home to feral horses. They are descendants of horses who bolted out of stables set up by the British Army in and around Tinsukia during World War II.


Birds (Dibru Saikhowa National Park Birds):

The park is an identified Important Bird Area (IBA), notified by the Birdlife International. It is most famous for the rare white-winged wood ducks.

  • White-winged Wood Ducks
  • Greater Adjutant
  • Ferruginous Pochard
  • Jerdon's Babbler
  • Black-breasted Parrotbill
  • Marsh Babbler
  • Puff-throated Babbler
  • Jerdon's Bushchat
  • Rufous-rumped Grassbird
  • Chestnut-crowned Bush Warbler
  • Swamp Francolin
  • Spot-billed Pelican
  • White-bellied Heron
  • Grey Heron
  • Purple Heron
  • Black-crowned Night Heron
  • Yellow Bittern
  • Asian Openbill
  • Lesser Adjutant
  • White-necked Stork
  • Black Stork
  • Black-necked Stork
  • Glossy Ibis
  • Fulvous Whistling-duck
  • Bar-headed Goose
  • Greylag Goose
  • Northern Pintail
  • Common Shelduck
  • Indian spot-billed duck
  • Baer's Pochard
  • White-tailed Eagle
  • Pallas's Fish Eagle
  • Grey-headed Fish Eagle
  • Greater Spotted Eagle
  • Himalayan Griffon
  • White-backed Vulture
  • Slender-billed Vulture
  • Osprey
  • Crested Serpent-eagle
  • Lesser Kestrel
  • Sarus Crane
  • Bengal Florican
  • Brown Fish Owl
  • Great Pied Hornbill
  • Spotted Redshank
  • Greenshank
  • Pale-capped Pigeon


Reptiles:

  • Indian Rock Python
  • King Cobra
  • Assam Roofed Turtle 
  • Indian Softshell Turtle
  • Monitor Lizards




Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Feral Horses

What is feral horse of Dibru-Saikhowa National Park?

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is known for its population of feral horses, also known as "feral ponies" or "wild horses." The feral horses in Dibru-Saikhowa National Park are indeed descendants of horses that escaped from the stables set up by the British Army during World War II in and around Tinsukia, which is located near the park.


During World War II, the British Army had established several military camps and stables in the region for logistical purposes. It is believed that some of the horses used by the British Army either escaped or were released into the wild after the war ended. Over time, these horses adapted to the natural environment and eventually formed the feral horse population in and around Dibru-Saikhowa National Park.


The presence of these feral horses adds a unique aspect to the park's biodiversity and is often regarded as an interesting sight by visitors. The descendants of these horses continue to roam freely within the park and have become a part of the park's ecosystem.




Top Things to do in Dibru-Saikhowa National Park

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park offers a variety of activities and experiences for visitors who wish to explore its natural beauty and wildlife. 


Here are some top things to do in Dibru-Saikhowa National Park:


  • Wildlife Safari
  • Bird Watching
  • River Cruise
  • Trekking and Nature Walks
  • Explore Maguri-Motapung Beel
  • Visit Guijan Ghat
  • Interact with Local Communities




Dibru-Saikhowa National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Dibru Saikhowa National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Dibru Saikhowa National Park is famous for Feral Horses.


Q. Where is Dibru Saikhowa National Park?

A. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is located in Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of  Assam, India. 


Q. Dibru Saikhowa National Park in which district?

A. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is located in Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of  Assam. 


Q. Why Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is famous? (What is Dibru-Saikhowa National Park famous for)

A. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is famous for feral horse.


Q. What is the other name of Dibru-Saikhowa National Park?

A. Dibru-Saikhowa Wildlife Sanctuary is the other name of Dibru-Saikhowa National Park.


Q. When was Dibru-Saikhowa declared as national park?

A. Dibru-Saikhowa was declared as national park in 1999.


Q. Which National Park is famous for feral horse?

A. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is famous for feral horse.


Q. Which National Park is famous for horse in India?

A. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is famous for horse in India.


Q. Which national park is famous for wild horse in Assam?

A. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is famous for wild horse in Assam.

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park

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