Wednesday, April 24, 2024

Mollem National Park

Mollem National Park UPSC

Mollem National Park is a protected area located in the state of Goa, India. It is one of the largest wildlife sanctuaries in the state. The park is named after the nearby village of Mollem.

Table of Contents

  • Mollem National Park Location
  • Mollem National Park History
  • Mollem National Park Area
  • Mollem National Park River
    • Dudhsagar River
  • Mollem National Park Flora
    • West Coast Tropical Evergreen Forests
    • West Coast Semi-Evergreen Forests
    • Moist Deciduous Forests
  • Mollem National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Butterflies
    • Reptiles
  • Tambdi Surla Temple
  • Mollem National Park UPSC Questions

Mollem National Park Location

Mollem National Park is located in the South Goa district of Goa, India. The park is located within Bhagwan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary.

It is approximately 57 kilometers southeast of Panaji, the capital city of Goa. The park is easily accessible by road, and the nearest major town is the city of Margao, which is around 25 kilometers away.

Mollem National Park Nearest Airport:

  • Goa Airport (45 km)

Mollem National Park Nearest Railway Station:

  • Collem or Kulem Railway Station

Note- The Mormugao–Londa railway line also passes amidst thick jungles of the Mollem National Park. 

Mollem National Park History

1. Colonial Period: Mollem National Park has a rich history that dates back to the colonial era in India. During the colonial period, the forests of Mollem were exploited for their timber resources. Large-scale deforestation took place, which led to a decline in the region's biodiversity and wildlife populations. Recognizing the need for conservation, the government took steps to protect the area and declared it as a wildlife sanctuary.

2. Wildlife Sanctuary: In, 1969, it was initially established as a wildlife sanctuary known as Mollem Game Sanctuary. Later it was renamed as Bhagwan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary

3. National Park: In 1978, the core area of the Bhagwan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary covering 107 square kilometres (41 sq mi) was designated as a national park and renamed Mollem National Park.

4. Infrastructure Development Projects: However, in recent years, the park has faced certain challenges due to infrastructure development projects proposed in its vicinity. Plans for a railway double-tracking project and a highway expansion have raised concerns among environmentalists and local communities. These proposals have sparked debates regarding their potential impact on the park's ecosystems, wildlife habitats, and overall biodiversity.

Mollem National Park Area

Mollem National Park is located within Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary. The Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary and Mollem National Park together constitute the largest protected area in Goa, with an area of 240 sq. km

The core area of the Bhagwan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary covering 107 square kilometres (41 sq mi) was designated as a national park in 1978. This forest area is part of the Western Ghats.

Mollem National Park River

Dudhsagar River passes through Mollem National Park. The Dudhsagar River is a prominent watercourse in the state of Goa, India. It is named after the Dudhsagar Waterfalls, which are one of the tallest waterfalls in India and a major tourist attraction in the region.

The Dudhsagar River originates in the Western Ghats and flows through the rugged terrain of the region. It is a perennial river, meaning it flows throughout the year, and its flow is dependent on the monsoon rains.

The river is fed by various tributaries and streams in the surrounding area, including the Kalsa and Surla Rivers. It cascades down in four tiers to form the magnificent Dudhsagar Waterfalls, which means "Sea of Milk" in the local language due to the milky white appearance of the water as it plunges down the rocks.

The Dudhsagar River and its waterfalls are located near the border of Goa and Karnataka, not far from Mollem National Park. The waterfalls and the surrounding area are a popular destination for tourists, trekkers, and nature enthusiasts who visit Mollem National Park.

Mollem National Park Flora

Mollem National Park showcases a variety of vegetation types, including the West Coast tropical evergreen forests, West Coast semi-evergreen forests, and moist deciduous forests. 

Here's a brief description of each:

(1) West Coast Tropical Evergreen Forests:

These forests are characterized by dense foliage, with tall trees forming a closed canopy that allows minimal sunlight to reach the forest floor. The trees in this type of forest retain their leaves throughout the year, providing a lush green appearance. Mollem National Park features patches of West Coast tropical evergreen forests, which are considered some of the most pristine and biodiverse forest ecosystems.

  • Rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia)
  • Ironwood (Mesua ferrea)
  • Indian Laurel (Terminalia elliptica)
  • Indian Mahogany (Toona ciliata)
  • Padauk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides)

(2) West Coast Semi-Evergreen Forests: 

West Coast semi-evergreen forests are a transitional forest type between evergreen and deciduous forests. These forests have a mix of tree species that shed a portion of their leaves during certain periods of the year while retaining some green foliage. The vegetation in this type of forest is slightly less dense compared to tropical evergreen forests, allowing more sunlight to penetrate the forest floor. The semi-evergreen forests in Mollem National Park contribute to the park's biodiversity and ecological significance.

  • Indian Beech (Pongamia pinnata)
  • Jackfruit Tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus)
  • Indian Kino Tree (Pterocarpus marsupium)
  • Devil Tree (Alstonia scholaris)
  • White Cedar (Dysoxylum malabaricum)

(3) Moist Deciduous Forests: 

Moist deciduous forests are characterized by trees that shed their leaves during the dry season. These forests exhibit a mix of both deciduous and evergreen species. Mollem National Park includes extensive areas of moist deciduous forests, which experience seasonal changes in leaf cover. During the monsoon season, the forests transform into a vibrant green landscape as the trees regain their leaves.

  • Teak (Tectona grandis)
  • Indian Rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo)
  • Anjani (Hardwickia binata)
  • Indian Laburnum (Cassia fistula)
  • Flame of the Forest (Butea monosperma)

Mollem National Park Fauna (Mollem National Park Animals)

Mollem national park is famous for which animal?

Mollem National Park is home to a diverse range of fauna, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and insects. 

Here are some notable examples of the fauna found in Mollem National Park:


  • Indian Bison (Gaur)
  • Indian Leopard
  • Bengal Tiger
  • Sambar Deer
  • Barking Deer
  • Indian Wild Boar
  • Sloth Bear
  • Indian Giant Squirrel
  • Common Langur
  • Bonnet Macaque
  • Pangolin
  • Porcupine
  • Slender Loris
  • Wild Boar
  • Wild Dog


  • Drongo
  • Emerald Dove
  • Fairy Bluebird
  • Golden Oriole
  • Greater Indian Hornbill
  • Indian Black Woodpecker
  • Malabar Grey Hornbill
  • Malabar Pied Hornbill
  • Grey-headed Myna
  • Grey Jungle Fowl
  • Large Green Barbet
  • Paradise Flycatcher
  • Racket-tailed Drongo
  • Ruby-throated Yellow Bulbul
  • Shrikes
  • Three-toed Kingfisher
  • Sri Lanka Frogmouth
  • Wagtails


  • Blue Mormon
  • Common Jezebel
  • Common Mormon
  • Common Mime
  • Plum Judy
  • Common Wanderer
  • Crimson Rose
  • Lime Butterfly
  • Plain Tiger
  • Southern Birdwing
  • Tailed Jay
  • Pygmy Scrub-hopper
  • Malabar Tree Nymph
  • Tamil Yoeman


  • King Cobra
  • Bronzeback Tree Snake
  • Cat Snake
  • Hump-nosed Pit Viper
  • Indian RockPython
  • Malabar Pit Viper
  • Rat Snake
  • Russell’s Viper
  • Indian Cobra
  • Common Krait

Tambdi Surla Temple

The Tambdi Surla Temple is a significant ancient temple located in the vicinity of Mollem National Park, Goa, India.

The Tambdi Surla Temple, also known as the Mahadev Temple, is a Shaivite temple dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is situated in the Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park, nestled amidst the lush greenery of the Western Ghats.

The temple dates back to the 12th century and is considered one of the oldest surviving temples in Goa. It was built during the reign of the Kadamba dynasty, who were the rulers of Goa during that era. The temple showcases impressive architecture and craftsmanship, exhibiting elements of the Hemadpanthi style.

The Hemadpanthi architectural style is characterized by its stone-carved structures, intricate designs, and a unique blend of Hindu and Jain architectural influences. The temple is constructed using weathered basalt stone, and its architecture reflects the artistic mastery of that period.

The temple stands on a small pedestal with intricate carvings depicting various Hindu mythological scenes and deities. The main shrine houses a Shiva linga, which is the central focus of worship. The sanctum is adorned with sculptures of elephants, dwarves, and other decorative motifs.

Despite the temple's ancient age, it has remained well-preserved, owing to its remote location and the efforts of conservation. The serene surroundings of the temple, encompassed by dense forests, add to its allure.

The Tambdi Surla Temple is not only a place of religious significance but also attracts visitors and history enthusiasts who appreciate its architectural beauty and historical value. It serves as a testament to the rich cultural heritage of Goa and provides a glimpse into the region's history during the Kadamba period.

Mollem National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Mollem National Park?/Mollem national park is located in which state?/In which city Mollem National Park is located?

A. Mollem National Park is located in the South Goa district of Goa, India.

Q. What is Mollem National Park famous for?

A. Mollem National Park is famous for Wildlife Safaris and Nature Trails, Dudhsagar Waterfalls, Tambdi Surla Temple etc.

Q. What is Mollem National Park also known as?

A. Mollem National Park is also known as Bhagwan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary.

Q. Which river passes through Mollem National Park?

A. Dudhsagar river passes through Mollem National Park.

Mollem National Park

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