Thursday, June 1, 2023

Nokrek National Park

Nokrek National Park UPSC

Nokrek National Park is a prominent national park located in the state of Meghalaya in northeastern India. It is one of the most significant biodiversity hotspots in the region and has been designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve


The Nokrek National Park is home to diverse ecosystems, including tropical and subtropical forests, grasslands, and high-altitude plateaus. It encompasses the Nokrek Biosphere Reserve, which consists of the Nokrek Peak, the highest peak in the Garo Hills region.


Table of Contents

  • Nokrek National Park Location
  • Nokrek National Park History
  • Nokrek National Park Area
  • Nokrek National Park Hills
    • Garo Hills
    • Nokrek Range
  • Nokrek National Park River
    • Simsang River
    • Ganol River
    • Dareng River
    • Nitai River
    • Bhugi River
  • Nokrek National Park Tribe
    • Garo Tribe
  • Nokrek National Park Flora
  • Nokrek National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Nokrek National Park
  • Nokrek National Park UPSC Questions


Nokrek National Park Location

Nokrek National Park is located in the West Garo Hills district of the state of Meghalaya, which is in northeastern India. It is situated about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) from Tura Peak and 45 Kms from Tura, the district headquarters of West Garo Hills. 


Tura is approximately 220 kilometers (137 miles) west of the state capital, Shillong. The park spans an area in the southeastern part of the Garo Hills region, near the border with Bangladesh.


Nokrek National Park Nearest Airport:

The Nearest Airport is Guwahati which is almost 140 Kms away


Nokrek National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station is Guwahati which is 160 Kms away.




Nokrek National Park History

Nokrek National Park has a rich history that spans several decades. Here is a brief overview of its history:


Establishment: In 1986, Nokrek National Park was established. The park was created to protect and conserve the unique biodiversity and ecosystems found in the Garo Hills region of Meghalaya.


Biosphere Reserve: In 1988, the Government of India officially declared Nokrek National Park as a biosphere reserve, acknowledging its immense ecological importance. 


UNESCO Biosphere Reserve: In 2009, Nokrek National Park was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. This recognition acknowledges the park's significance in terms of its ecological value and sustainable development.


Endangered Species Conservation: The park gained recognition for its efforts in conserving endangered species, especially the Western Hoolock gibbon. This small ape species is found only in northeastern India and neighboring countries, and Nokrek National Park serves as an important sanctuary for its conservation.


Indigenous Communities: The park is also home to various indigenous communities, such as the Garo tribe, who have been residing in the region for generations. These communities have a close connection to the land and have traditionally played a role in the conservation of the area's natural resources.




Nokrek National Park Area

Nokrek National Park covers an area of approximately 47 square kilometers (18 square miles). The Park is small, but it serves as the core area of the Nokrek Biosphere Reserve (82,000 ha). 


Within its boundaries, the park encompasses a range of ecosystems, including tropical and subtropical forests, grasslands, and high-altitude plateaus. 


Nokrek National Park Height

The highest point in Nokrek National Park is the Nokrek Peak, which has an elevation of 1,412 meters (4,633 feet) above sea level. 




Nokrek National Park Hills

Nokrek National Park is located in the Garo Hills region of Meghalaya, India. The park is named after the Nokrek Range, which is a prominent hill range within its boundaries. The Nokrek Range is part of the larger Garo Hills, which are a series of hills and plateaus that extend across the western part of Meghalaya. 


(1) Nokrek National Park Garo Hills:

The Garo Hills is a hilly region located in the western part of the state of Meghalaya, India. It is named after the Garo tribe, one of the major indigenous communities residing in the region. The Garo Hills form a part of the larger Meghalaya Plateau, which also includes the Khasi Hills and Jaintia Hills.


The Garo Hills are characterized by rolling hills, deep valleys, and dense forests. The region receives heavy rainfall, contributing to its lush greenery and abundant vegetation. The terrain is predominantly hilly, with elevations ranging from a few hundred meters to over a thousand meters above sea level.


The Garo Hills are known for their rich biodiversity. The forests of the region are home to a wide variety of plant and animal species. It is known for its dense tropical and subtropical forests, which include a mix of evergreen and deciduous trees. The forests support a range of wildlife, including elephants, tigers, leopards, bears, various bird species, and several endemic species found in the region.


The Garo Hills offer opportunities for nature tourism and adventure activities such as trekking and wildlife watching. Some notable places of interest in the Garo Hills include Nokrek National Park, Siju Cave, Balpakram National Park, Napak Lake and Tura Peak.



(2) Nokrek Range:

The Nokrek Range is a prominent hill range located within Nokrek National Park in the West Garo Hills district of Meghalaya, India. It is a part of the Garo Hills, which is a hilly region in western Meghalaya. The Nokrek Range is known for its scenic beauty, diverse flora and fauna, and its importance as a habitat for various endangered and endemic species.


The highest peak in the Nokrek Range is the Nokrek Peak, which stands at an elevation of 1,412 meters (4,633 feet) above sea level. This peak is the highest point in the Garo Hills region and offers panoramic views of the surrounding landscapes.


The Nokrek Range is characterized by dense forests, including tropical and subtropical forests, as well as grasslands and high-altitude plateaus. It is home to a variety of plant species, some of which have medicinal properties and are used by the local communities for traditional purposes.


The Nokrek Range, along with the entire Nokrek National Park, is recognized as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, highlighting its importance in terms of biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.




Nokrek National Park River

Nokrek National Park is traversed by several rivers and streams that contribute to the rich biodiversity and ecosystem of the region. One of the prominent rivers that flows through Nokrek National Park is the Simsang River (known as Someshwari in Bangladesh). Ganol, Dareng, Nitai and Bhugi rivers also flow through the park.


Simsang River:

Simsang River is a major river in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya and Netrakona District of Bangladesh. It is an important tributary of the Brahmaputra River. It originates from the Nokrek Range and passes through the southern part of Nokrek National Park. The river flows through lush green forests, creating a picturesque landscape.


The Simsang River is home to various fish species, including the iconic Golden Mahseer, a popular game fish. The river's presence enhances the overall ecological value of Nokrek National Park and provides habitat for several wildlife species that depend on it for water and food.




Nokrek National Park Tribe (What tribes are in Nokrek?)

Nokrek National Park is home to the Garo tribe, which is one of the major indigenous communities residing in the region. The Garo tribe is known for their distinct culture, traditions, and language.


Garo Tribe:

The Garo tribe is one of the major indigenous communities residing in the Garo Hills region of Meghalaya, India. They are the largest tribal community in Meghalaya and have a distinct culture, language, and way of life.


The Garo people are believed to have migrated to the Garo Hills several centuries ago. They have a rich oral tradition and pass down their history, myths, and legends through storytelling. The Garo language, also known as Achik, belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family and is spoken by the majority of the Garo tribe.


Traditionally, the Garo people have been agrarian, practicing shifting cultivation and relying on agriculture for their livelihoods. They grow crops such as rice, millet, maize, and vegetables. Livestock rearing, particularly of cattle and pigs, is also an important aspect of their economy.


The Garo tribe has a strong connection to their natural surroundings. They have a deep respect for the forests, rivers, and mountains, which play a significant role in their cultural practices and religious beliefs. The Garo people have a rich folklore, traditional songs, and dances that celebrate their relationship with nature.


Some important festivals of the Garo tribe include Wangala, also known as the Hundred Drums Festival, which is a harvest festival celebrated with music, dance, and feasting. The Songsarek Festival is another important cultural event that showcases traditional music and dance performances.




Nokrek National Park Flora

Nokrek National Park in Meghalaya, India, is known for its rich and diverse flora. The park encompasses various ecosystems, including tropical and subtropical forests, grasslands, and high-altitude plateaus, which support a wide range of plant species. 


Here are some notable flora found in Nokrek National Park:


(1) Tree Species:

The park's forests are characterized by a mix of evergreen and deciduous tree species. Some common tree species found in Nokrek National Park include Sal (Shorea robusta), Teak (Tectona grandis), Hollock (Dipterocarpus spp.), and Gamari (Gmelina arborea).


(2) Bamboo Groves:

Bamboo is a prominent feature of the park's flora. Several species of bamboo, including Bambusa tulda and Dendrocalamus strictus, can be found throughout the park, forming dense groves.


(3) Orchids: 

Nokrek National Park is known for its orchid diversity. Orchids such as Cymbidium elegans, Dendrobium densiflorum, and Eria reticulata are found in the park, adding color and beauty to the forested areas.


(4) Medicinal Plants: 

The park is home to several medicinal plants that have traditional uses among local communities. Plants like Swertia chirata, Dioscorea bulbifera, and Aconitum balfourii are known for their medicinal properties and are used in traditional medicine practices.


(5) Grasslands: 

Along with forests, Nokrek National Park also has grassland areas. These grasslands host a variety of grass species and provide important habitats for grazing animals and support biodiversity.




Nokrek National Park Fauna (Nokrek National Park Animals)

Nokrek National Park in Meghalaya, India, is renowned for its diverse fauna. The park's rich ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and plateaus, provide habitat for a wide range of animal species. 


Here are some notable fauna found in Nokrek National Park:


Mammals:

  • Western Hoolock Gibbon
  • Asian Elephant
  • Indian Bison (Gaur)
  • Clouded Leopard
  • Marbled Cat
  • Red Panda
  • Stump-tailed Macaque


Birds:

Nokrek National Park in Meghalaya, India, is a haven for birdwatchers and bird enthusiasts. The park's diverse habitats, ranging from forests to grasslands, provide suitable environments for a wide variety of bird species. 


Here are some notable bird species found in Nokrek National Park:

  • Great Indian Hornbill 
  • Rufous-necked Hornbill 
  • Oriental Pied Hornbill
  • Grey Peacock-Pheasant
  • White-cheeked Partridge 
  • Sultan Tit 
  • Broad-billed Warbler


Reptiles:

Nokrek National Park is home to a diverse range of reptiles. The park's varied habitats, including forests, grasslands, and wetlands, provide suitable conditions for these fascinating creatures. 


Here are some notable reptiles found in Nokrek National Park:

  • King Cobra
  • Indian Rock Python
  • Bengal Monitor Lizard 
  • Indian Cobra
  • Common Krait
  • Green Vine Snake 
  • Asian Forest Tortoise




Top Things to do in Nokrek National Park

When visiting Nokrek National Park in Meghalaya, India, there are several activities and attractions that you can enjoy. 


Here are some of the top things to do in Nokrek National Park:

  • Wildlife Safari
  • Trekking
  • Birdwatching
  • Nature Photography
  • Interact with the Garo Tribe
  • Explore Waterfalls (Pelga Falls or Siju Falls)
  • Picnic and Relaxation




Nokrek National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Nokrek National Park is located in which state?

A. Nokrek National Park is located in the West Garo Hills district of Meghalaya, India.


Q. Nokrek National Park is famous for which animal?/Why is Nokrek National Park famous?

A. Nokrek National Park is famous for Western Hoolock Gibbon.


Q. Where is Nokrek National Park?/Nokrek National Park is located in which district?

A. Nokrek National Park is located in the West Garo Hills district of the state of Meghalaya, which is in northeastern India.


Q. Which river passes through Nokrek National Park?

A. Simsang, Ganol, Dareng, Nitai and Bhugi rivers also flow through Nokrek National Park.


Q. When was Nokrek National Park added to UNESCO?

A. Nokrek National Park was added to UNESCO in 2009.


Q. Which animal is famous in Nokrek National Park?

A. Western Hoolock Gibbon is famous in Nokrek National Park.


Q. Which animal is protected in Nokrek National Park?

A. Western Hoolock Gibbon is protected in Nokrek National Park.

Nokrek National Park

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