Monday, August 21, 2023

Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary

Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

The Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in the state of Maharashtra, India. Nestled within the Sahyadri Hills, a part of the Western Ghats mountain range, this sanctuary is known for its rugged terrain, diverse flora and fauna, and captivating landscapes.

The sanctuary is named after two prominent places at its limits: Kalsubai and Harishchandragad. Kalsubai is known for being the highest peak in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, while Harishchandragad is a notable hill fort in the same region.

The sanctuary's varied ecosystems, ranging from Southern moist mixed deciduous vegetation forests to hills and water bodies, provide habitats for a range of animal species including leopards, jungle cats, palm civets, wolves, and more. A plethora of bird species, such as the Malabar whistling thrush and Indian peafowl, contribute to the avian diversity.

For travelers and nature enthusiasts, the sanctuary offers opportunities for trekking, exploring natural habitats, and experiencing the scenic beauty of the Sahyadri Hills. 

Table of Contents

  • Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Hills
  • Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Location

The Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Akole Tehsil of the Ahmednagar district in Maharashtra, India. It is situated in rugged terrain, surrounded by the Sahyadri Hills. 

Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to the Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary is the Pune Airport (Lohegaon Airport) located in Pune, Maharashtra. The Pune Airport is the primary airport serving the Pune Metropolitan Region and surrounding areas.

Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station is  Bhandara (185 km).

Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary History

Establishment and Notification: The Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary was officially established and recognized as a protected area on March 20, 1986. This significant step was taken to preserve and safeguard the diverse flora and fauna found within the sanctuary's boundaries. The establishment of the sanctuary was based on the legal framework provided by the Wildlife Protection Act of India.

Ecological Significance: The sanctuary's history is rooted in the understanding of its ecological importance. The region's unique landscape, situated in the rugged terrain surrounded by the Sahyadri Hills, made it a prime candidate for conservation efforts. The area's distinctive blend of flora and fauna prompted the recognition of the need for protection to maintain its ecological balance.

Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Area

The Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary encompasses an area of approximately 361.71 square kilometers. The sanctuary's substantial size contributes to its ability to house diverse ecosystems and support a variety of plant and animal species.

The large area of the sanctuary allows for the conservation of various habitats, ranging from dense forests to rugged terrains. This diversity of landscapes provides a home for a wide range of flora and fauna, making the sanctuary an important ecological area within the region.

Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Hills

The Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary is nestled within the Sahyadri Hills, a mountain range located in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. The sanctuary is surrounded by these hills, which contribute to its rugged terrain and diverse landscapes.

The Sahyadri Hills, also known as the Western Ghats, are recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to their ecological significance and rich biodiversity. These hills are known for their lush forests, unique flora and fauna, and numerous peaks and valleys.

Kalsubai Peak:

Located within the same vicinity, the Kalsubai Peak stands as a prominent feature of the Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary. Rising to an impressive height of approximately 1,650 meters, this peak claims its position as one of the loftiest summits within the expansive Western Ghats mountain range.

The Kalsubai Peak's towering elevation not only grants it awe-inspiring panoramic views of the surrounding landscapes but also contributes to its significance within the region. As trekkers and nature enthusiasts venture through the sanctuary, ascending the Kalsubai Peak is often considered a challenging yet rewarding endeavor, offering an unparalleled opportunity to witness the breathtaking beauty of the Sahyadri Hills and the diverse ecosystems below.

Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

The flora of the Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary is rich and diverse, thanks to its varied ecosystems and the sanctuary's location within the Sahyadri Hills. Here are some of the plant species that are likely found within the sanctuary's boundaries:

Hirda (Terminalia chebula): Also known as the "Myrobalan," this tree is valued for its medicinal properties and its fruit, which is used in traditional medicine.

Jambul (Syzygium cumini): Commonly known as the "Java plum" or "Jamun," this tree produces edible fruits and has several traditional uses.

Chandawa (Strychnos potatorum): Also called the "Clearing-nut tree," this plant is known for its seeds, which are used to clarify water.

Bahava (Cassia fistula): Recognized for its bright yellow flowers, the Bahava tree is commonly called the "Golden Shower Tree."

Kumbhal (Careya arborea): Also known as the "Wild Guava," this tree produces round fruits with edible pulp.

Gulchavi (Diospyros melanoxylon): The "Blackwood Tree" is valued for its strong timber and has traditional uses in furniture and crafts.

Kudal (Holoptelea integrifolia): Known as the "Indian Elm," this tree has medicinal properties and is used for its bark and leaves.

Siras (Albizia lebbeck): The "Siris" or "Lebbeck Tree" is recognized for its feathery foliage and its use in traditional medicine.

Kharvel (Pongamia pinnata): Also called "Indian Beech," this tree produces oil-rich seeds used for various purposes.

Karap (Gmelina arborea): Known as the "Cashew Tree," this plant has timber with commercial value and is used for construction.

Avali (Dendrocalamus strictus): Commonly referred to as "Bamboo," this plant has various uses, including construction, crafts, and food.

Ashind (Terminalia elliptica): The "Indian Laurel" has astringent properties and is used in traditional medicine.

Lokhand (Syzygium cuminii): Also known as "Indian Blackberry," this tree produces edible fruits and has medicinal uses.

Behada (Terminalia bellerica): One of the three fruits in the traditional Indian medicinal formula Triphala, Behada is valued for its therapeutic properties.

Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

What animals are in Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary?

The Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of fauna that thrives within its varied ecosystems. Here are some of the notable animal species that you might find within the sanctuary's boundaries:


  • Leopard
  • Jungle Cat
  • Palm Civet
  • Striped Hyaena
  • Wolf
  • Jackal
  • Fox
  • Wild Boar
  • Barking Deer


  • White-necked Stork
  • Malabar whistling thrush
  • Indian Peafowl
  • Indian Pitta
  • Common Kingfisher


  • Monitor Lizard
  • Fan-throated Lizard
  • Banded Kukri

Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary?

A. The Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Akole Tehsil of the Ahmednagar district in the state of Maharashtra, India. This sanctuary is situated in the rugged and picturesque terrain of the Sahyadri Hills, which is a part of the Western Ghats mountain range. 

Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary

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