Monday, August 28, 2023

Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary

Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

The Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the Indian state of Kerala. The sanctuary is situated within the Western Ghats biogeographic zone, which is known for its rich biodiversity. The sanctuary is a part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

What makes this sanctuary particularly unique is that it contains seven different types of forests, making it the only forest stretch in Kerala with such diversity: Semi-evergreen forest, Evergreen rainforest, Moist deciduous forest, Sub-tropical savannah, Sub-tropical hill forest, Montane wet temperate forest, and Montane wet grasslands.

The New Amarambalam Reserve, which is part of the Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary, is noted for having some of the most pristine forests untouched by human activity. This adds to the sanctuary's value as a refuge for undisturbed ecosystems.

With its diverse habitats and species, the sanctuary also holds potential for ecological research and studies, aiding in understanding the complex relationships between species and their environment.

Table of Contents

  • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Tribe
  • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Location

The Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary is located near Nilambur in the Malappuram district of the Indian state of Kerala. It is situated in the southern part of India, within the Western Ghats mountain range. 

It serves as a vital ecological corridor connecting the Silent Valley National Park in Kerala and the Mukurthi National Park in Tamil Nadu.

Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to the Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary is the Calicut International Airport, also known as Karipur Airport. It is located in Karipur, Kozhikode (Calicut), Kerala, and is approximately 38-40 kilometers away from the sanctuary. Travel time from the airport to the sanctuary would depend on the route taken and local transportation options.

Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to the Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary is the Nilambur Road Railway Station. It is situated in Nilambur, Kerala, and is at a distance of about 25-30 kilometers from the sanctuary. As with the airport, travel time from the railway station to the sanctuary will vary based on transportation choices and road conditions.

Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary History

The Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary has a relatively short history as a designated wildlife sanctuary. Here's a brief overview of its history:

Establishment as a Wildlife Sanctuary: The Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary was officially declared a wildlife sanctuary on July 3, 2020. This declaration marked the formal recognition of the area's ecological importance and its need for conservation and protection.

Inclusion in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve: The sanctuary is a part of the larger Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, which is a UNESCO-designated biosphere reserve known for its rich biodiversity. This inclusion highlights the sanctuary's significance in the context of regional conservation efforts.

Role in Conservation: The sanctuary plays a crucial role in creating a contiguous protective area stretch by linking the Silent Valley National Park in Kerala and the Mukurthi National Park in Tamil Nadu. This corridor helps in preserving and maintaining wildlife populations and their habitats.

Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Area

The Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 227.97 square kilometers. It encompasses the New Amarambalam Reserved Forest and Vadakkekotta vested forest. 

The sanctuary's diverse landscapes, ranging from lower altitudes to higher elevations, contribute to its ecological significance and provide habitat for a wide variety of flora and fauna.

Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Tribe

The Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary is home to the Cholanaikar tribe, an indigenous tribal community. However, it's important to note that the Manjeri colony of the Cholanaikar tribe is excluded from the sanctuary's boundaries. 

Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

The Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary boasts a diverse range of flora due to its varied elevations and forest types. 

(1) Vegetation Types:

The Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary features a variety of forest types due to its altitudinal range and diverse habitats. These forest types include:

  • Semi-evergreen forests
  • Evergreen rainforests
  • Moist deciduous forests
  • Sub-tropical savannahs
  • Sub-tropical hill forests
  • Montane wet temperate forests
  • Montane wet grasslands

(2) Plant Species:

Some of the notable plant species found in the sanctuary include:

Xylia xylocarpa: Also known as the Indian blackwood, this tree species is valued for its durable timber and is often used for various construction purposes.

Terminalia species: Terminalia paniculata, T. bellirica, and T. alata are members of the Terminalia genus found in the sanctuary. These trees have various traditional uses and are known for their medicinal properties.

Radermachera xylocarpa: Also known as the Indian laburnum or the pau mara, this tree produces clusters of yellow flowers and is valued for its ornamental and timber qualities.

Artocarpus species: Artocarpus gomezianus and A. hirsutus are two species of jackfruit trees found in the sanctuary. Jackfruit is a popular fruit and has economic and cultural significance.

Stereospermum colais: This tree is valued for its attractive and fragrant flowers, making it a prized ornamental and landscape tree.

Dalbergia latifolia: Also known as Indian rosewood or sissoo, this tree produces valuable timber and is used in furniture making.

Tetrameles nudiflora: This tree is known for its unique appearance with bare branches and a distinctive crown. It's commonly referred to as the "umbrella tree."

Bombax ceiba: Also known as the red silk-cotton tree, it produces large, red flowers and distinctive pods filled with cotton-like fibers.

Pterocarpus marsupium: Also known as Indian kino tree or venga, this species is used in traditional medicine and has reddish wood.

Tectona grandis: Commonly known as teak, this tree is highly valued for its durable timber used in construction and furniture.

Persea macrantha: This tree species is valued for its timber and other uses.

Calophyllum polyanthum: Known as Indian laurel, this tree produces valuable wood and is sometimes used in traditional medicine.

Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

The Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of wildlife species due to its varied habitats and ecosystems. Here are some examples of the fauna that can be found in the sanctuary:


  • Nilgiri Tahr (an endangered mountain goat species)
  • Nilgiri Langur
  • Lion Tailed Macaque
  • Elephants
  • Sambar Deer
  • Barking Deer
  • Indian Bison (Gaur)
  • Malabar Giant Squirrel
  • Indian Giant Flying Squirrel
  • Small Indian Civet
  • Indian Pangolin
  • Wild Boar
  • Indian Hare


  • Nilgiri Wood Pigeon
  • Blue Winged Parakeet
  • Grey Headed Bulbul
  • White Bellied Blue Flycatcher
  • Broad Tailed Grass Warbler
  • Nilgiri Pipit


  • Snakes
  • Lizards

Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary which district?/In which district is karimpuzha wildlife sanctuary?/Where is Karimpuzha National Park?

A. The Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Malappuram district of the Indian state of Kerala. It is situated near Nilambur, a town in the Malappuram district. The sanctuary spans a diverse landscape and plays a significant role in preserving the region's biodiversity. 

Q. What is Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. The Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary is famous for several reasons:

(i) Biodiversity: The sanctuary is renowned for its rich biodiversity, housing a wide variety of plant and animal species. Its diverse range of habitats, altitudinal gradient, and connection to the Western Ghats contribute to its ecological significance.

(ii) Seven Forest Types: The sanctuary is the only forested area in Kerala where all seven forest types found in the state are present. This unique feature highlights the sanctuary's ecological diversity and makes it an important conservation area.

(iii) Nilgiri Tahr Conservation: The sanctuary is home to the Nilgiri Tahr, an endangered mountain goat species. Its presence underscores the sanctuary's importance in conserving threatened species and their habitats.

(iv) Wildlife Corridor: By linking the Silent Valley National Park in Kerala and the Mukurthi National Park in Tamil Nadu, the sanctuary serves as a critical wildlife corridor, allowing species to move between protected areas and maintain genetic diversity.

(v) Contribution to Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve: Being part of the larger Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, the Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary contributes to the conservation efforts in this UNESCO-designated biosphere reserve.

(vi) Pristine Ecosystems: The New Amarambalam Reserve within the sanctuary is known for its pristine forests untouched by human activity. This area contributes to the preservation of undisturbed ecosystems.

(vi) Scenic Landscapes: The sanctuary's varied altitudes result in diverse landscapes, ranging from lower elevations to higher hills. This provides visitors with picturesque views and opportunities to experience different natural environments.

Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary

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