Friday, August 11, 2023

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Jammu & Kashmir region of India. This sanctuary is dedicated to the conservation of the rare markhor wild goat species and is recognized as part of an eco-sensitive zone by the Government of Jammu & Kashmir. 

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary is located on the north bank of the Jhelum river. Its proximity to the Line of Control, which marks the international border between India and Pakistan, adds to its geopolitical significance.

It has been integrated into the Kazinag National Park since 2007, having been established as a sanctuary in 1987. The sanctuary derives its name from the Limbar Nala that drains it and Limbar village that lies in its lower catchment.

The topography of the Limber Valley Wildlife Sanctuary is characterized by steep slopes, with precipitous cliffs in the upper reaches of the valley. The region experiences significant avalanches and landslides, particularly in the upper valleys. 

Table of Contents

  • Limber Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Limber Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Limber Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Limber Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Limber Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Limber Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Limber Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary Location

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Baramulla district of Jammu & Kashmir union territory, India. It is located on the north bank of the Jhelum River.

The sanctuary is positioned along the Srinagar-Uri national highway and is bordered by the Bhurji Forest to the north, the River Jhelum to the south, the Katha Forest to the east, and the Salamabad Forest to the west. 

It is situated in close proximity to the Line of Control, which marks the international border between India and Pakistan. The sanctuary is around 70 kilometers away from Srinagar, the capital city of Jammu & Kashmir.

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Limber Wildlife Sanctuary is the Srinagar International Airport (Sheikh ul-Alam Airport), located in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir. This airport serves as the primary gateway to the region and is approximately 70 kilometers away from the sanctuary.

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

As for the nearest railway station, Jammu Tawi Railway Station is a major railhead in Jammu & Kashmir. However, it is situated at a considerable distance from Limber Wildlife Sanctuary, which is closer to Srinagar. Travelers arriving by train to Jammu Tawi Railway Station would need to arrange further transportation to reach the sanctuary, which is approximately 300 kilometers away.

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary History

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary has a history rooted in its establishment and subsequent conservation efforts. Here is a brief overview of its history:

Earlier Game Reserve Status: Limber Wildlife Sanctuary has a history that dates back to its earlier status as a game reserve. Before its official establishment as a wildlife sanctuary, the area held the designation of a game reserve, indicating its recognition as a valuable region for wildlife and natural resources.

Establishment and Notification: Limber Wildlife Sanctuary was established in the year 1987. It began as a designated game reserve, but its significance as a habitat for various wildlife species, particularly the rare markhor wild goat, led to its formal declaration as a wildlife sanctuary. The sanctuary was officially notified and recognized as an important conservation area to protect and preserve the diverse flora and fauna found within its boundaries.

Limbar Valley and Its Significance: The sanctuary's name, "Limber Wildlife Sanctuary," finds its roots in the Limbar Valley. This valley derives its name from the Limbar Nala, a draining stream that courses through the area, and the Limbar village nestled in its lower catchment. This geographical connection reflects the symbiotic relationship between the sanctuary's natural features and its local heritage.

Integration with Kazinag National Park: In 2007, Limber Wildlife Sanctuary became part of Kazinag National Park, further enhancing its role in wildlife conservation and ecosystem protection. This integration with the national park allowed for a broader approach to conservation efforts, as the sanctuary's unique ecosystem became part of a larger protected area network.

Conservation Efforts: Over the years, the sanctuary has been a focal point for wildlife conservation initiatives. Efforts have been made to protect and conserve the markhor population, which is a flagship species for the sanctuary. Local and national authorities, along with conservation organizations, have likely been involved in implementing measures to safeguard the sanctuary's biodiversity and natural resources.

Eco-Sensitive Zone Designation: Limber Wildlife Sanctuary's ecological significance led to its recognition as an eco-sensitive zone by the Government of Jammu & Kashmir. This designation reflects the importance of maintaining the delicate balance between human activities and the conservation of the sanctuary's unique ecosystems.

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary Area

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 21.76 square kilometers. This relatively compact yet ecologically diverse expanse makes it an important habitat for various wildlife species, including the rare markhor wild goat, Himalayan musk deer, leopards, brown bears, and a diverse range of bird species. 

Despite its moderate size, the sanctuary's significance lies in its ability to support and protect these unique and valuable ecosystems within the larger context of the region. 

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary River

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary is situated on the north bank of the Jhelum River in the Baramulla district of Jammu & Kashmir, India. The River Jhelum flows along the southern boundary of the sanctuary. 

This river plays a vital role in the local ecosystem by providing water, supporting vegetation, and contributing to the overall biodiversity of the sanctuary. It also serves as a natural boundary that defines one of the edges of the sanctuary's protected area. 

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary boasts a rich and varied flora that contributes to its ecological significance. The sanctuary's vegetation encompasses a range of plant communities, each adapted to its specific ecological niche within the landscape.

(1) Coniferous Forests:

The sanctuary is characterized by Coniferous forests dominated by the majestic Deodar cedar (Cedrus deodara). These forests create a verdant canopy and provide habitat and sustenance for various wildlife species. Underneath the Deodar canopy, you may find understorey plants like Parrotiopsis (Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana) and Viburnum (Viburnum grandiflorum).

(2) Blue Pine Forests:

Another distinctive flora type within the sanctuary is the Blue Pine (Pinus griffithii) forest. These stands of Blue Pine intermingle with other tree species such as Deodar, Silver Fir (Abies pindrow), and Spruce (Picea smithiana). This diverse forest composition contributes to the sanctuary's ecological complexity.

(3) Silver Fir Forests:

Silver Fir forests, characterized by Silver Fir trees (Abies pindrow), further enhance the sanctuary's biodiversity. Mixed stands of Pine and Spruce are also present, creating a mosaic of different tree species and vegetation layers.

(4) Broadleaved Forests:

The sanctuary includes areas of Broadleaved forests, which encompass various tree species. Near the village of Limbar, Chinar (Platanus orientalis) stands grace the landscape, adding to the sanctuary's aesthetic and ecological value. Additionally, Walnut (Juglans regia) wood cover and Horse Chestnut (Aesculus indica) stands along the riverine belt of Viji (Mithawani area) contribute to the diverse range of habitats.

(5) Alpine Flora:

As the elevation increases, the flora transitions to alpine vegetation. The gentle alpine slopes are adorned with Birch (Betula utilis) trees, occasionally interspersed with isolated Horse Chestnut, Silver Fir, and Walnut trees. Alpine meadows flourish with a colorful tapestry of herbaceous plants, including species like Inula, Caltha, Primula, Potentilla, Corydalis, Gentiana, Anemone, Myosotis, and Polygonum.

(6) Unique Plant Species:

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary's diverse ecosystems also support unique and specialized plant species such as Juniper (Juniperus recurva) and Rhododendron (Rhododendron anthopogon) at higher elevations. These plants contribute to the sanctuary's ecological diversity and provide essential habitat for various wildlife species.

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Limber Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse and vibrant array of wildlife species. Its varied ecosystems provide habitats for numerous animals, both iconic and lesser-known, contributing to the sanctuary's ecological importance and conservation efforts.


  • Markhor 
  • Asiatic Black Bear 
  • Brown Bear 
  • Himalayan Musk Deer 
  • Goral 
  • Leopard 
  • Himalayan Mouse Hare 
  • Red Fox
  • Himalayan Yellow-throated Martin
  • Rhesus Macaque 
  • Common Langur


  • Western Tragopan 
  • Cheer Pheasant 
  • Koklass Pheasant 
  • Himalayan or Impeyan Monal 
  • Himalayan Snowcock 
  • Chukor 
  • Golden Eagle 
  • Oriental Hobby 
  • Bearded Vulture


  • Snakes
  • Lizards

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. In which district is Limber Wildlife Sanctuary?

A. Limber Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Baramulla district of Jammu & Kashmir, India. This district is situated in the northern part of the state and is known for its diverse landscapes, including mountains, forests, and rivers. The sanctuary's presence in the Baramulla district contributes to the region's ecological diversity and its role in wildlife conservation.

Q. What is Limber Wildlife Sanctuary also known as?

A. Limber Wildlife Sanctuary is also known by the names "Kazing Wildlife Sanctuary" or "Qazing Wildlife Sanctuary." These alternate names might be used interchangeably to refer to the same protected area. The various names could stem from local dialects, administrative designations, or historical references. Regardless of the name used, the sanctuary holds ecological and conservation significance in the Jammu & Kashmir region of India.

Q. What is the Limber Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. Limber Wildlife Sanctuary is primarily famous for its conservation efforts focused on protecting the rare and endangered markhor wild goat (Capra falconeri). The sanctuary provides a safe and protected habitat for this iconic species, which is well-adapted to the rugged terrain and diverse vegetation of the region.

In addition to its conservation significance for the markhor, the sanctuary is also renowned for:

(i) Biodiversity: Limber Wildlife Sanctuary supports a diverse range of flora and fauna, including Himalayan musk deer, leopards, brown bears, various bird species, and other wildlife. The sanctuary's ecological diversity contributes to its importance as a conservation area.

(ii) Natural Beauty: The sanctuary's picturesque landscapes, including alpine meadows, coniferous forests, and other habitats, make it a destination for nature enthusiasts and eco-tourism. Visitors can appreciate the scenic beauty and experience a diverse array of ecosystems.

(iii) Eco-Sensitive Zone: The sanctuary's designation as an eco-sensitive zone by the Government of Jammu & Kashmir highlights its role in maintaining the delicate balance between human activities and ecological conservation.

(iv) Integration with Kazinag National Park: Being integrated into Kazinag National Park further enhances its significance as a protected area within a larger network of conservation efforts.

Limber Wildlife Sanctuary

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