Tuesday, September 26, 2023

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in the state of Assam, India. The sanctuary was officially notified with the primary purpose of conserving and protecting the Hispid Hare and Pygmy Hog.

The habitat within the sanctuary varies from dense forests in the north to mixed scrub and grassland in the southern part. However, human activities have significantly modified the southern vegetation, with commercial plantations replacing natural habitats.

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is crucial for the conservation of several threatened and endangered species, and it is part of the larger Manas Tiger Reserve.

The sanctuary is open for visitors year-round, so the best time to visit depends on your preferences and the weather conditions you prefer.

Table of Contents

  • Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary Location

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Udalguri district and Baksa District of Assam, India. It is situated along the international border with Bhutan to the north. The sanctuary is nestled in the foothills of the Himalayas and is characterized by its diverse landscape and rich biodiversity. 

The Bornadi River forms the western boundary of the sanctuary, while the Nalapara River marks the eastern boundary. To the south, the sanctuary is fringed by cultivation, tea gardens, and settlements. 

This location in the foothills of the Himalayas contributes to the sanctuary's unique ecological characteristics and makes it an important conservation area for a variety of wildlife species.

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is Guwahati Airport (also known as Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport). Guwahati Airport is the largest and busiest airport in the state of Assam and provides domestic and international flight connectivity.

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is Barpeta Road Railway Station. Barpeta Road Railway Station is located in the town of Barpeta Road in Assam and is a significant railhead in the region. From there, visitors can use road transport to reach the sanctuary, which is approximately 60 kilometers away from the railway station.

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary History

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary has a history primarily focused on its conservation efforts and the rediscovery of critically endangered species. Here is a brief history of the sanctuary:

Discovery of Critically Endangered Species: The sanctuary gained prominence due to the rediscovery of two critically endangered species—the Hispid Hare (Caprolagus hispidus) and the Pygmy Hog (Sus salvanius). Before 1971, both of these species were believed to be extinct. However, they were rediscovered in the Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary, leading to the sanctuary's establishment for their conservation.

Establishment of the Sanctuary: Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary was officially notified on August 11, 1980. Its primary purpose was to protect and conserve the Hispid Hare and Pygmy Hog, along with other wildlife species found in the area.

Role in Conservation: The sanctuary plays a vital role in the conservation of these critically endangered species, as well as other threatened and endangered wildlife, including Asian Elephants, Tigers, Leopards, Hog Deer, and Gaur (Indian Bison).

Habitat Preservation: Over the years, the sanctuary has faced challenges related to habitat degradation due to human activities, including the planting of commercial tree species like teak (Tectona grandis) and others. These activities have impacted the natural grasslands and forests within the sanctuary.

Part of Manas Tiger Reserve: Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is an integral part of the Manas Tiger Reserve, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This larger protected area along the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas is known for its rich biodiversity and plays a significant role in the conservation of multiple species.

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary Area

The Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 26.22 square kilometers (10.12 square miles). This relatively small protected area in Assam, India, is dedicated to the conservation of its unique biodiversity, including critically endangered species like the Hispid Hare and Pygmy Hog, as well as other threatened and endangered wildlife. 

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary River

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is bordered by rivers on its western and eastern sides. The Bornadi River flows along the sanctuary's western border, giving the sanctuary its name. Additionally, the Nalapara River marks the eastern boundary of the sanctuary.

These rivers contribute to the sanctuary's ecological diversity and provide essential water sources for the wildlife inhabiting the area. The Bornadi River and Nalapara River, along with other seasonal streams and water bodies within the sanctuary, play a significant role in supporting the local ecosystem, including various plant and animal species.

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary features diverse flora that includes various types of vegetation due to its varied landscape, which ranges from flat bhabar plains to seasonal nullahs (streams) and forests. Here are some of the prominent flora found in Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary:

(1) Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests:

Along the northern edge of the sanctuary, you can find tropical moist deciduous forests. These forests are characterized by trees that shed their leaves during the dry season. Species such as Sal (Shorea robusta), Teak (Tectona grandis), and other hardwood trees are typically found in this type of forest.

(2) Mixed Scrub and Grassland:

The southern part of the sanctuary contains mixed scrub and grassland areas with fewer trees. These grasslands may have species like Saccharum grass, Phragmites, and Themeda.

(3) Commercial Plantations:

Human activities, including commercial plantation efforts, have affected the natural habitat within the sanctuary. Tree species such as Teak (Tectona grandis), Bombax ceiba, Gmelina arborea, Phoebe goalparensis, and Eucalyptus have been planted in some areas, which has led to changes in the landscape.

(4) Other Tree Species:

The sanctuary may also host a variety of other tree species, including Alstonia scholaris, Garuga pinnata, Aphanamixis polystachya, Toona ciliata, Mesua ferrea, Terminalia chebula, Bischofia javanica, Bridelia retusa, Mellotus repandus, Careya arborea, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Gmelina arborea.

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is famous for which animal?

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is renowned for its diverse and unique fauna, including several critically endangered and threatened species. Here is a list of some of the notable fauna found in Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary:


  • Pigmy Hog
  • Hispid Hare
  • Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Elephant
  • Himalayan Black Bear
  • Gaur
  • Capped Langur
  • Small Indian Civet
  • Jungle Cat
  • Chinese Pangolin
  • Porcupine
  • Barking Deer
  • Hog Deer
  • Wild Boar


  • Peafowl
  • Hornbill
  • Swamp Partridge
  • Bengal Florican


  • Lizards
  • Snakes

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is located in which district?

A. Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the  Udalguri district and Baksa District of Assam, India.

Q. What is Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is primarily famous for two critically endangered species that were rediscovered within its boundaries:

(i) Hispid Hare (Caprolagus hispidus): Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is one of the few places where the critically endangered Hispid Hare can be found. This species was thought to be extinct until it was rediscovered in this sanctuary in 1971. The sanctuary plays a crucial role in the conservation efforts for this rare hare species.

(ii) Pygmy Hog (Sus salvanius): Similar to the Hispid Hare, the Pygmy Hog is also critically endangered and was rediscovered in Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary in 1971. It is the smallest and rarest pig species in the world. Conservation efforts have been initiated to save this species from extinction, with breeding programs and habitat protection being key components.

These two critically endangered species are the main highlights of Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary, and the sanctuary's fame largely stems from its role in the conservation of these unique and threatened animals.

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary

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