Wednesday, September 27, 2023

Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary

Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary UPSC

Hollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary, also known as Hollongapar Reserve Forest, is a protected wildlife sanctuary located in the northeastern state of Assam, India. It is renowned for its efforts in conserving and protecting the endangered Western Hoolock Gibbon, the only ape species found in India. 

The Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) is the star attraction of this sanctuary. This primate species is known for its distinctive white eyebrows and is native to the forests of northeastern India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.

The sanctuary consists of evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, which are the natural habitats of the Western Hoolock Gibbon. These forests provide the gibbons with the necessary food sources and canopy cover.

The best times to visit the sanctuary are in June-July and February-March when the weather is favorable for wildlife sightings and exploration.

Table of Contents

  • Hoollongapar GibbonSanctuary Location
  • Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary History
  • Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary Area
  • Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary Flora
  • Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Hoollongapar GibbonSanctuary Location

The Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary is located in the Jorhat district of the state of Assam in northeastern India. It is situated in the northeastern part of the country. 

Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary is Rowriah Airport (also known as Jorhat Airport), which is located approximately 25 kilometers (about 15.5 miles) away from the sanctuary. Rowriah Airport serves the city of Jorhat, which is the nearest major town to the sanctuary.

Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary is Mariani Railway Junction, situated about 5 kilometers (approximately 3.1 miles) from the sanctuary. Mariani Railway Junction is well-connected to various other cities and towns in the region by rail.

Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary History

The history of Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary, formerly known as the Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary or Hollongapar Reserved Forest, reflects a long journey of conservation efforts and the protection of its unique biodiversity. Here's a historical overview of the sanctuary:

Early Establishment: The sanctuary's history dates back to 1881 when it was initially established as a "Reserve Forest" (RF) and was named after the dominant tree species in the area, the hollong tree (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus). During this time, it was considered an integral part of the foothill forests of the Patkai mountain range.

Artificial Regeneration: In the early 1900s, efforts were made to artificially regenerate the forest within the sanctuary. These efforts aimed to develop a well-stocked, even-aged forest that could support a diverse range of flora and fauna. This regeneration work contributed significantly to the sanctuary's biodiversity.

Tea Gardens and Human Settlements: Over the years, the sanctuary faced challenges due to the encroachment of tea gardens and the establishment of small villages in the surrounding areas. The growth of tea gardens and the subsequent fragmentation of the forest posed threats to the habitat.

Renaming and Official Recognition: In 1997, the sanctuary was officially renamed as the "Gibbon Sanctuary, Meleng" and later as the "Hollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary." It is unique in India for being named after gibbons, particularly the Western Hoolock Gibbon. This renaming highlighted the sanctuary's importance in conserving gibbons.

Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary Area

The Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 20.98 square kilometers (8.1 square miles). This sanctuary is relatively small in size but is known for its rich biodiversity and its significance in conserving the Western Hoolock Gibbon, India's only gibbon species, and other unique wildlife. 

Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary Flora

The Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of flora, which includes various tree species, shrubs, and other vegetation types typical of the semi-evergreen and evergreen forests found in the region. 

Here are some of the notable flora species found in the sanctuary:

  • Hollong (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus)
  • Nahor (Mesua ferrea)
  • Sam (Artocarps chaplasha)
  • Amari (Amoora wallichi)
  • Sopas (Mcheliai spp.)
  • Bhelu (Tetramels mudiflora)
  • Udal (Sterculia villosa)
  • Hingori (Castanopsis spp.)
  • Bamboo species, including Dolu bamboo (Teinostachyum dullooa) and Bojal bamboo (Pseudostachyum polymorphum)
  • Various shrubs and herbs

Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary Fauna (Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary Animals)

The Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary is known for its diverse fauna, including a variety of wildlife species. Here's a list of some of the notable fauna found in the sanctuary:


  • Hoolock Gibbon
  • Assamese Macaque
  • Pig-tailed Macaque
  • Rhesus Macaque
  • Stump-tailed Macaque
  • Capped Langur
  • Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Asian Elephant
  • Pangolin
  • Slow Loris
  • Jungle Cat
  • Barking Deer
  • Sambar


  • Osprey
  • Hill Myna
  • Kaleej Pheasant


  • Indian Python
  • Indian Cobra
  • Common Monitor Lizard
  • Indian Tent Turtle

Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. In which district Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary is situated?

A. The Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary is situated in the Jorhat district of the state of Assam, India.

Q. When was Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary established?

A. The Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary was established as a protected wildlife sanctuary on September 17, 1997. It was officially constituted and renamed in 1997 to focus on the conservation of the Western Hoolock Gibbon and other wildlife species in the region.

Q. What is the Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary famous for?

A. The Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary, located in Assam, India, is famous for several reasons:

(i) Conservation of Western Hoolock Gibbons: The sanctuary is renowned for its efforts in conserving the Western Hoolock Gibbon, which is India's only gibbon species and is listed as an endangered species. Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary provides a vital habitat for these gibbons.

(ii) Biodiversity: It is known for its rich biodiversity, housing a variety of wildlife species, including the Bengal slow loris, Asian elephants, leopards, various monkey species, and a wide range of bird and reptile species.

(iii) Name: It is unique for being one of the few Indian sanctuaries to be named after a specific wildlife species, in this case, gibbons. The sanctuary's official name reflects its dedication to the conservation of gibbons.

(iv) Tourism and Education: The sanctuary allows visitors to appreciate the natural beauty and biodiversity of the region while educating them about the importance of wildlife conservation.

Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary

No comments:

Post a Comment