Tuesday, May 16, 2023

Guru Ghasidas National Park

Guru Ghasidas National Park UPSC

Guru Ghasidas National Park is a prominent protected area located in the state of Chhattisgarh, India. Spanning across vast landscapes, the park is renowned for its rich biodiversity and scenic beauty. 


Guru Ghasidas National Park is named after Guru Ghasidas, a revered spiritual leader and social reformer from the Satnami community. Formerly known as Sanjay National Park, the park underwent a name change to honor Guru Ghasidas, who made significant contributions to society. 


Guru Ghasidas National Park serves as a vital ecological hotspot, preserving a wide array of flora and fauna species within its boundaries. The park boasts a diverse range of wildlife, making it a haven for nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers. 


Table of Contents

  • Guru Ghasidas National Park Location
  • Guru Ghasidas National Park History
  • Guru Ghasidas National Park Area
  • Guru Ghasidas National Park River
    • Banas River
    • Bijaur Nala
    • Hasdeo River
  • Guru Ghasidas National Park Tribe
  • Guru Ghasidas National Park Flora
  • Guru Ghasidas National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Asiatic Cheetah Last Known Habitat
  • Top Things to do in Guru Ghasidas National Park
  • Guru Ghasidas National Park UPSC Questions


Guru Ghasidas National Park Location

Guru Ghasidas National Park is located in the Koriya district of Chhattisgarh, India. This national park is situated between two significant tiger reserves, namely Palamau in Jharkhand and Bandhavgarh in Madhya Pradesh.


Guru Ghasidas National Park Nearest Airport:

The closest airport to reach the Guru Ghasidas National Park is 

  • Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (220 km)
  • Ranchi in Jharkhand. (250 km)


Guru Ghasidas National Park Nearest Railway Station:

  • Jaora Railway Station (20 km)

 



Guru Ghasidas National Park History

Establishment of Sanjay National Park: In 1983, Guru Ghasidas National Park was established as the Sanjay National Park.


Formation of Guru Ghasidas National Park: In 2000, Guru Ghasidas National Park was formed from Sanjay National Park when Chhattisgarh was bifurcated from Madhya Pradesh and formed a state in itself. After creating the new state, 60% of the Sanjay National Park fell under the district of Koriya in Chhattisgarh.


Renaming as Guru Ghasidas National Park: In 2007, the park was renamed as Guru Ghasidas National Park in honor of Guru Ghasidas, the founder of the Satnami community and a social reformer.


Declaration of Guru Ghasidas Tiger Reserve: In 2022, the combined areas of the Guru Ghasidas National Park and Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary were declared a Tiger Reserve. Guru Ghasidas Tiger Reserve is the 53rd Tiger Reserve in India and the 4th tiger reserve in the state.




Guru Ghasidas National Park Area

The Guru Ghasidas National Park stretches over an area of 1,500 km2 (580 sq mi). Before year 2000, it was a part of the Sanjay National Park (Madhya Pradesh), which covered an total area of 2,300 square kilometres (890 sq mi).




Guru Ghasidas National Park River

The Guru Ghasidas National Park is surrounded by several rivers that contribute to the region's natural beauty and sustenance. 


Here are some of the prominent rivers flowing through the park:


(1) Banas River:

Flowing gracefully from the western side of the park, the Banas River adds to the scenic charm of Guru Ghasidas National Park. Its gentle flow and the soothing sound of its waters create a tranquil ambiance, offering a delightful experience for visitors.


(2) Bijaur Nala:

Meandering through the northern part of the national park, the Bijaur Nala is another significant river that contributes to the park's beauty and sustenance. Its meandering course adds to the diverse landscape of the park, providing a habitat for various aquatic species.


(3) Hasdeo River:

One of the prominent rivers that courses through the Guru Ghasidas National Park is the Hasdeo River. This river plays a vital role in enhancing the park's water resources, ensuring a consistent water supply for the diverse flora and fauna within its boundaries. The presence of the Hasdeo River further enriches the park's ecosystem and supports the thriving wildlife.




Guru Ghasidas National Park Tribe

The Guru Ghasidas National Park also serves as a cultural melting pot, as it is surrounded by several villages inhabited by tribal.


Here are some of the tribes that can be found near the Guru Ghasidas National Park:

  • Cherva
  • Pando
  • Gond
  • Khairwar
  • Agaria




Guru Ghasidas National Park Flora

Guru Ghasidas National Park is renowned for its diverse and rich flora, comprising various plant species that contribute to the park's vibrant ecosystem. Here are some notable aspects of the park's flora:


(1) Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests:

The dominant vegetation type in Guru Ghasidas National Park is tropical moist deciduous forests. These forests consist of a variety of tree species that shed their leaves during the dry season. Sal (Shorea robusta), teak (Tectona grandis), mahua (Madhuca longifolia), tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon), and bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea) are among the prominent tree species found in these forests.


(2) Grasslands:

Interspersed within the forested areas, the park encompasses vast stretches of grasslands. These grasslands provide grazing areas for herbivores and create a unique habitat for various plant species. They play a crucial role in maintaining the park's ecological balance.


(3) Medicinal Plants:

Guru Ghasidas National Park is home to several medicinal plants that hold significant importance in traditional medicine. Various species, including Aloe vera, Justicia adhatoda (Malabar nut), and Rauwolfia serpentina (Indian snakeroot), are found in the park. These plants have been traditionally used for their therapeutic properties.


(4) Riparian Vegetation:

The park's proximity to rivers and streams gives rise to riparian vegetation, which thrives along water bodies. This vegetation includes species like bamboo, Indian trumpet flower (Oroxylum indicum), Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica), and ferns, which are adapted to the wetter habitats near the watercourses.


(5) Epiphytes and Orchids:

Guru Ghasidas National Park hosts a range of epiphytic plants, which grow on the trunks and branches of trees. These include orchids, ferns, mosses, and lichens. The park's moist environment and tree diversity provide an ideal habitat for these fascinating epiphytic species.




Guru Ghasidas National Park Fauna (Guru Ghasidas National Park Animals)

Guru Ghasidas National Park is home to a diverse range of fauna, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The park's varied ecosystems provide a favorable habitat for these species. 


Here are some notable examples of the fauna found in Guru Ghasidas National Park:


Mammals: 

  • Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Nilgai
  • Chital (Spotted Deer)
  • Jackal
  • Chinkara
  • Chousingha (Four Horns Antelope)
  • Sambar
  • Barking Deer
  • Spotted Deer
  • Porcupine
  • Monkey
  • Striped Hyena
  • Bison
  • Wild Dog
  • Sloth Bear
  • Civet
  • Wild Bear
  • Wild Boar


Birds:

  • Bulbuls
  • Parakeets
  • Munia
  • Wagtail
  • Barbet
  • Kingfishers
  • Lesser Adjutant
  • Golden Hooded Oriole
  • Rufous-Treepie
  • Indian Pitta
  • Racket-Tailed Drongo
  • Rufous-Treepie
  • Red-Headed Vulture 


Reptiles:

  • Monitor lizard
  • Cobra
  • Python




Last known habitat of the Asiatic Cheetah in India

Guru Ghasidas National Park was the last known habitat of the Asiatic Cheetah in India.




Top Things to do in Guru Ghasidas National Park

Guru Ghasidas National Park is known for its rich biodiversity and stunning natural beauty. Nature enthusiasts can indulge in activities such as nature walks and trekking, allowing them to explore the park's scenic trails and immerse themselves in its pristine surroundings.


Here are some of the top things to do in Guru Ghasidas National Park:


  • Wildlife Safari
  • Bird Watching
  • Nature Walks
  • Trekking
  • Picnic and Relaxation
  • Photography
  • Explore Tribal Villages




Guru Ghasidas National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Guru Ghasidas National Park?/Guru Ghasidas National Park in which state?/Guru Ghasidas National Park in which district?

A. Guru Ghasidas National Park is located in the Chhattisgarh state. 


Q. Why Guru Ghasidas National Park is famous?

A. Guru Ghasidas National Park is famous for Tiger Reserve.


Q. What is Guru Ghasidas National Park also known as?

A. Guru Ghasidas National Park is also known as Sanjay National Park.


Q. Is Guru Ghasidas National Park was last known habitat of the Asiatic cheetah in the country?

A. Yes, Guru Ghasidas National Park was the last known habitat of the Asiatic Cheetah in India.


Q. Which river flows through Guru Ghasidas National Park?/Which river is near Guru Ghasidas National Park?

A. Banas River, Bijaur Nala, Hasdeo River flows through Guru Ghasidas National Park.

Guru Ghasidas National Park

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