Wednesday, June 28, 2023

Kali Tiger Reserve

Kali Tiger Reserve UPSC (Anshi Dandeli Tiger Reserve UPSC)

Kali Tiger Reserve is a wildlife sanctuary and tiger reserve located in state of Karnataka, India. It was earlier known as Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve. It is named after the Kali River, which flows through the reserve. 

The Kali Tiger Reserve was declared a Project Tiger reserve in 2007, with the aim of conserving the endangered Bengal tigers. The reserve is home to a significant population of tigers. The diverse ecosystem of the Kali Tiger Reserve comprises evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, moist deciduous forests, and bamboo forests. 

Table of Contents

  • Kali Tiger Reserve Location
  • Kali Tiger Reserve History
  • Kali Tiger Reserve Area
  • Kali Tiger Reserve River
    • Kali River
  • Kali Tiger Reserve Flora
  • Kali Tiger Reserve Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Top Things to do in Kali Tiger Reserve
  • Kali Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Kali Tiger Reserve Location

The Kali Tiger Reserve is located in the Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India. It is situated in the southwestern part of the state, near the town of Dandeli.

Kali Tiger Reserve Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Kali Tiger Reserve is the Hubli Airport, which is located in Hubli city, Karnataka. The airport is approximately 95 kilometers (59 miles) away from the Kali Tiger Reserve. From Hubli Airport, you can hire a taxi or use public transportation to reach the reserve.

Kali Tiger Reserve Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Kali Tiger Reserve is the Alnavar Junction Railway Station, which is situated in the town of Alnavar in Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka. The railway station is approximately 23 kilometers (14 miles) away from the Kali Tiger Reserve. From Alnavar Junction Railway Station, you can take a taxi or avail of local transportation to reach the reserve.

Kali Tiger Reserve History

The history of Kali Tiger Reserve dates back several decades. Here is a brief overview:

Pre-reserve era: The region that now comprises the Kali Tiger Reserve has a long history of human habitation and forest use. Indigenous communities, such as the Siddis and local tribes, have traditionally lived in and around these forests, practicing subsistence agriculture and relying on forest resources for their livelihoods.

Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1956, the Government of Karnataka declared the area as a wildlife sanctuary to protect the diverse flora and fauna found in the region. This initial step aimed to preserve the natural habitat and conserve the wildlife population.

Anshi National Park: In 1987, the Anshi National Park was officially established.

Tiger Reserve Status: In 2007, Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary (475.018 sq km) and Anshi National Park (339.866 sq km) were together granted the status of tiger reserve, as ‘ Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve’ under Project Tiger. This designation aimed to specifically focus on the conservation and protection of the Bengal tiger population in the region, which is endangered.

Rename: In 2015, Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve was renamed to Kali Tiger Reserve. The change of name was to bring focus and awareness to Kali River.

Kali Tiger Reserve Area

The Kali Tiger Reserve spans a total area of 1,345.7167 square kilometers (520.1348 square miles). This includes both the core or critical tiger habitat, which covers 814.884 square kilometers (314.811 square miles), and the buffer or peripheral area, which extends over 530.8327 square kilometers (205.3238 square miles).

The reserve is formed by the combination of two protected areas: the Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary and the Anshi National Park. The Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of 475.018 square kilometers (183.44 square miles), while the Anshi National Park spans 339.866 square kilometers (131.186 square miles). These two areas are contiguous to each other, creating a continuous tract of protected land in the ecologically sensitive Western Ghats region.

This large expanse of the Kali Tiger Reserve provides a significant habitat for various wildlife species, including the endangered Bengal tigers, as well as other flora and fauna that are characteristic of the Western Ghats ecosystem.

  • Core/critical tiger habitat : 814.884 Sq. Kms.
  • Buffer/peripheral area : 530.8327 Sq. Kms.
  • Total : 1345.7167 Sq. Kms.

Kali Tiger Reserve River

The Kali Tiger Reserve is named after the Kali River, which flows through the region. The Kali River is a major watercourse in the Western Ghats of India and plays a crucial role in shaping the landscape and supporting the diverse ecosystems within the reserve. 

The Kali River is not only significant for its scenic beauty but also plays a crucial role in supporting the wildlife and ecosystems of the Kali Tiger Reserve. It provides water to the flora and fauna in the region, creating a thriving habitat for various species.

The Kali River offers opportunities for various water-based activities within the reserve. Visitors can enjoy activities like boating, river rafting, and coracle rides, providing a unique perspective of the reserve's natural surroundings.

Kali Tiger Reserve Flora

The Kali Tiger Reserve is known for its diverse flora, representing various forest types characteristic of the Western Ghats region. Here are some of the prominent flora found in the reserve:

(1) South Indian Moist Deciduous Teak Forests:

These forests are dominated by teak (Tectona grandis) trees, along with other species such as Lagerstroemia, Terminalia, and Pterocarpus. They thrive in areas with a distinct wet and dry season.

(2) Southern Moist Mixed Deciduous Forests:

These forests comprise a mix of deciduous tree species that shed their leaves during the dry season. Common tree species include Terminalia, Palaquium, Hopea, and Dipterocarpus.

(3) West Coast Semi-evergreen Forests:

These forests are characterized by a mix of evergreen and deciduous tree species, creating a unique transitional zone. Notable tree species include Dipterocarpus, Mesua, Cullenia, and Calophyllum.

(4) Moist Bamboo Brakes:

Bamboo forests are present in the Kali Tiger Reserve, contributing to the diverse flora. Species like Dendrocalamus strictus and Bambusa bambos are commonly found.

(5) Cane Brakes:

Cane brakes, characterized by tall and thick-stemmed species of wild cane or bamboo-like plants, are also part of the reserve's vegetation. These dense thickets provide habitat for various wildlife species.

Kali Tiger Reserve Fauna (Kali Tiger Reserve Animals)

The Kali Tiger Reserve is home to a diverse array of wildlife species, including several endangered and iconic animals. The rich biodiversity of the reserve attracts wildlife enthusiasts and nature lovers from around the world. Here are some of the notable fauna found in the Kali Tiger Reserve:


  • Tiger
  • Black Panther
  • Leopard
  • Elephant
  • Bison
  • Wild Dog
  • Sambar
  • Spotted Deer
  • Sloth Bear
  • Wild Boar
  • Hanuman Langur
  • Bonnet Macaque

Note- Kali Tiger Reserve is home to rare Black Panthers.


  • Malabar Pied Hornbill
  • Great Indian Hornbill
  • Indian Pitta
  • Racket-tailed Drongo
  • Malabar Trogon
  • Indian Roller
  • Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher


  • King Cobra
  • Indian Python
  • Malabar Pit Viper
  • Russell's Viper
  • Indian Rock Python
  • Green Vine Snake
  • Common Indian Monitor Lizard

Top Things to do in Kali Tiger Reserve

When visiting the Kali Tiger Reserve, there are several activities and experiences that nature enthusiasts can enjoy. Here are some of the top things to do in the Kali Tiger Reserve:

  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • Nature Trails
  • Boating and Coracle Rides
  • Visit the Supa Dam
  • Tribal Village Visits
  • Nature Photography
  • Nature Interpretation Center

Kali Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Kali Tiger Reserve?/In which state is Kali Tiger Reserve?

A. Kali Tiger Reserve is located in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state in India.

Q. Which river flows through the Kali Tiger Reserve?

A. Kali River flows through the Kali tiger reserve.

Q. What is Kali Tiger Reserve also known as?

A. Kali Tiger Reserve is also known as Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve.

Q. Kali Tiger Reserve in which biosphere reserve?

A. The Kali Tiger Reserve is located within the Western Ghats, which is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a globally important biodiversity hotspot. 

Q. How many tigers are there in Kali Tiger Reserve?

A. 22 tigers are there in Kali Tiger Reserve.

Kali Tiger Reserve

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