Wednesday, August 9, 2023

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the state of of Himachal Pradesh, India. The sanctuary encompasses a captivating mosaic of natural features and a rich tapestry of biodiversity. Its location within the catchment area of the Sutlej river and bounded by the Sutlej River to the north and a rugged mountain ridge to the south gives it a unique geographical setting. 

The sanctuary's terrain is adorned with the majestic presence of Chir Pine and Ban Oak forests, interwoven with subtropical Euphorbia scrub. These vegetative compositions lend an enchanting backdrop to the sanctuary's diverse inhabitants. The sanctuary's ecosystem is further enriched by the Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest biome, fostering a harmonious balance between species. 

Among the sanctuary's diverse wildlife, the avian residents paint a vibrant picture of life. Notably, the sanctuary's avian importance extends to being part of the Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Area. The globally threatened Cheer Pheasant takes center stage, joined by the captivating Kaleej Pheasant and Koklass.

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary, with its diverse landscapes and intricate relationships between flora and fauna, stands as a testament to nature's beauty and complexity. It provides a haven where species thrive and interact, forming an integral part of the sanctuary's captivating narrative. Places of religious interest include the Harsingh Temple.

Table of Contents

  • Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary Location

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Shimla and Solan districts of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. It is part of the catchment area of the Sutlej river. The sanctuary is bounded to the north by the Sutlej river and to the south by a mountain ridge. 

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

Jubbarhatti Airport, located approximately 23 kilometers away from Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary.

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

Kalka Railway Station, situated about 96 kilometers away from Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary.

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary History

Establishment as a Wildlife Reserve: Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary has a significant historical milestone, having been officially declared a wildlife reserve in the year 1962. This early recognition marked the beginning of its journey towards conservation and protection.

Sanctuary Notification: In a notable step towards safeguarding its unique ecosystem and biodiversity, Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary was once again acknowledged in March 1974. This declaration as a sanctuary reinforced the commitment to preserving the area's natural heritage.

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary Area

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary encompasses a defined area within the Shimla and Solan districts of Himachal Pradesh, India. As a testament to its commitment to conservation, the sanctuary spans approximately 40 square kilometers, serving as a crucial haven for various plant and animal species.

This expanse, carefully preserved and protected, contributes to the broader landscape of biodiversity conservation efforts in the region. The sanctuary's landscape is defined by its steep terrain, comprising a section of the southern slopes of the Sutlej Valley.

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary River

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary, cradled within the embrace of Shimla and Solan districts in Himachal Pradesh, India, owes a debt of gratitude to the life-giving presence of the Sutlej River. This majestic watercourse, flowing to the north of the sanctuary, not only defines its boundaries but also shapes its ecosystem dynamics.

The Sutlej River, with its pristine waters, serves as a vital source of sustenance for the diverse flora and fauna that call the sanctuary home. Its presence brings a sense of vitality and abundance to the landscape, offering hydration to the lush vegetation that carpets the sanctuary's terrain. Moreover, the river's influence extends beyond its immediate shores, influencing the microclimates, soil composition, and overall ecological balance within the sanctuary.

As the Sutlej River meanders through the sanctuary's expanse, it creates habitats that support a wide array of aquatic life, contributing to the overall biodiversity of the region. The river's rhythmic flow and its interaction with the sanctuary's hills, forests, and grasslands create a symphony of nature that echoes through the landscape.

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

The Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary boasts a captivating and diverse floral tapestry. This sanctuary's unique ecological niches give rise to a rich array of plant species, each contributing to the delicate balance of its ecosystem.

(1) Chir Pine and Ban Oak Forests:

Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii) and Ban Oak (Quercus leucotrichophora) forests dominate the sanctuary's slopes, forming a verdant backdrop to its landscapes. These forests provide vital habitats for various wildlife species and contribute to the sanctuary's overall biodiversity.

(2) Subtropical Euphorbia Scrub:

Amidst the hills and grassy tracts, subtropical Euphorbia scrub adds its own character to the sanctuary. This hardy vegetation thrives in the sanctuary's unique climatic conditions, offering both cover and sustenance for various wildlife inhabitants.

(3) Grassy Tracts and Beyond:

The hillsides, often dominated by grassy expanses, create a mosaic of habitats that cater to a range of plant species. These grassy tracts serve as essential grazing grounds for ungulates and contribute to the sanctuary's overall ecological dynamics.

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary is a sanctuary of life, teeming with a remarkable array of fauna. This haven shelters a diverse range of animals, each contributing to the intricate web of life that flourishes within its boundaries.


  • Leopard
  • Asiatic Black Bear
  • Golden Jackal
  • Common Palm Civet
  • Himalayan Palm Civet
  • Yellow-throated Marten
  • Jungle Cat
  • Sambar
  • Barking Deer
  • Goral
  • Wild Boar


  • Cheer Pheasant
  • Kaleej Pheasant
  • Koklass
  • Black Francolin
  • Grey-Crowned Prinia

Note- The Sanctuary may be one of the most important sites in Himachal Pradesh for Cheer pheasant, and the only site present within the Sutlej catchment.


  • Various snake species
  • Lizards (skinks, agamids)
  • Turtles and Tortoises

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary located?

A. Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Shimla and Solan districts of Himachal Pradesh, India.

Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary

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